This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
In this study, the compression ratio of a commercial 15L heavy-duty diesel engine was lowered and a split injection strategy was developed to promote partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion. Various low reactivity gasoline-range fuels were compared with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) for steady-state engine performance and emissions. Specially, particulate matter (PM) emissions were examined for their mass, size and number concentrations, and further characterized by organic/elemental carbon analysis, chemical speciation and thermogravimetric analysis. As more fuel-efficient PPCI combustion was promoted, a slight reduction in fuel consumption was observed for all gasoline-range fuels, which also had higher heating values than ULSD. Since mixing-controlled combustion dominated the latter part of the combustion process, hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were only slightly increased with the gasoline-range fuels. In contrast, soot emissions were significantly reduced with the gasoline-range fuels, including a ~70% reduction in micro soot sensor measurements and a >50% reduction in smoke meter measurements. All gasoline-range fuel PM samples were also found to contain higher amount of volatile species and organic carbon fractions compared to ULSD PM samples as measured by thermogravimetric and EC-OC analyses. Various partially oxidized HC species and nitrophenolic compounds were also detected by TDP-GC-MS and CE-MS techniques, which indicated that more pronounced PPCI combustion occurred with the gasoline-range fuels. Overall similar PM oxidation behavior was observed despite the differences in reactivity and chemical properties of the fuels, although there may be some significant impacts under certain operating conditions.
CitationLee, J., Tzanetakis, T., Zhang, Y., Traver, M. et al., "Characterization of Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition with Gasoline-Range Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1185, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1185.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 8]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 9]|
- Engine & Emission Technology Guide, www.dieselnet.com/technical.html.
- Lee, J., Tzanetakis, T., Zhang, Y., Traver, M. et al., “Emission Performance of Low Cetane Naphtha as Drop-In Fuel on a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine and Aftertreatment System,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1000, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1000.
- California Air Resources Board, “Heavy-Duty Low NOx Program,” www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/hdlownox/hdlownox.htm.
- Lee, J., Tzanetakis, T., Zhang, Y., and Traver, M., “Characterization of Hydrocarbon and Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Compression Ignition Engine,” in CRC 28th Real World Emissions Workshop, Garden Grove, CA, March 20, 2018.
- Johansson, B., “High-Load Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” in Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations, Chicago, IL, 2005.
- Sellnau, M., Moore, W., Sinnamon, J., Hoyer, K. et al., “GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and Low Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0834, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0834.
- Cho, K., Latimer, E., Lorey, M., Cleary, D., and Sellnau, M., “Gasoline Fuels Assessment for Delphi’s Second Generation Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Multi-Cylinder Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0743, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0743.
- Kalghatgi, G., “Auto-Ignition Quality of Practical Fuels and Implications for Fuel Requirements of Future SI and HCCI Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0239, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0239.
- Kalghatgi, G., Risberg, P., and Ångström, H., “Partially Pre-Mixed Auto-Ignition of Gasoline to Attain Low Smoke and Low NOx at High Load in a Compression Ignition Engine and Comparison with a Diesel Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0006, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0006.
- Manente, V., Tunestal, P., Johansson, B., and Cannella, W., “Effects of Ethanol and Different Type of Gasoline Fuels on Partially Premixed Combustion from Low to High Load,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0871, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0871.
- Weall, A. and Collings, N., “Gasoline Fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition in a Light Duty Multi Cylinder Engine: A Study of Low Load and Low Speed Operation,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):1574-1586, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1791.
- Chang, J., Kalghatgi, G., Amer, A., and Adomeit, P., “Vehicle Demonstration of Naphtha Fuel Achieving Both High Efficiency and Drivability with Euro6 Engine-Out NOx Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Engines 6(1):101-119, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0267.
- Zhang, Y., Kumar, P., Pei, Y., Traver, M., and Cleary, D., “An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Gasoline Compression Ignition using Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0226, 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-0226.
- Sluder, C., Wagner, R., Lewis, S., and Storey, J., “Exhaust Chemistry of Low-NOx, Low-PM Diesel Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0114, 2004, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0114.
- Storey, J., Lewis, S., Parks, J., Szybist, J. et al., “Mobile Source Air Toxics from High Efficiency Clean Combustion,” SAE Int. J. Engines 1:1157-1166, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-2431.
- Kolodziej, C., Wirojsakunchai, E., Foster, D., Schmidt, N. et al., “Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Advanced Diesel Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1945, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-1945.
- Storey, J., Curran, S., Lewis, S., Barone, T. et al., “Evolution and Current Understanding of Physicochemical Characterization of Particulate Matter from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion on a Multicylinder Light-Duty Engine,” Int. J. Engine Res. 18:505-519, 2017, doi:10.1177/1468087416661637.
- Voice, A., Tzanetakis, T., and Traver, M., “Lubricity of Light-end Fuels with Commercial Diesel Lubricity Additives,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0871, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0871.
- Tzanetakis, T., Voice, A., and Traver, M., “Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0270, 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-0270.
- NIOSH Manual of Analysis Methods, “Diesel Particulate Matter (as Elemental Carbon),” NIOSH Method 5040, Rev. Mar. 2003.
- Storey, J., Lewis, S., Szybist, J., Thomas, J. et al., “Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(2):571-579, 2004, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1606.
- Lewis, S.A., Connatser, R.M., DeBusk, M.M., and Storey, J.M., “Method for Detection of Polar Compounds Condensed on Diesel Particles using Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry,” in preparation.
- Maricq, M. and Xu, N., “The Effective Density and Fractal Dimension of Soot Particles from Premixed Flames and Motor Vehicle Exhaust,” J. Aerosol Science 35:1251-1124, 2004, doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.05.002.
- Park, K., Feng, C., Kittelson, D., and McMurray, P., “Relationship between Particle Mass and Mobility for Diesel Exhaust Particles,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 37:577-583, 2003, doi:10.1021/es025960v.
- Yezerets, A., Currier, N., Eadler, H., Suresh, A. et al., “Investigation of the Oxidation Behavior of Diesel Particulate Matter,” Catal. Today 88:17-25, 2003, doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2003.08.003.