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Functional Application, Regulatory Requirements and Their Future Opportunities for Lighting of Automated Driving Systems
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
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Automated Driving Systems (ADS) are now at start to initiate a change of the human mobility and usage of vehicles.
The safe and non-disruptive integration of automated vehicles into “normal” traffic will ask for a new way of communication between the vehicles and their environment. Similar to the existing signal lights, dedicated ADS signals can play a major role in this communication, in a passive way e.g. as tail light (to be seen) or in an active mode beyond turn indicators or stop lights.
Recent publications show high attention on the automation of vehicles - traffic density as well customer comfort is driving the development towards more autonomy and intense usage of human-machine interfaces to increase effectiveness of transportation. Vehicle lighting in this field will take a natural functionality - both to see and to be seen needs to be updated to the future needs of the application. Especially during the decade of a mixed traffic situation, lighting needs to take more communication functionality than before. As most of human sensing is based on visual recognition, lighting devices will support the signalization between vehicles as well as with other road users.
From a given perspective of road legality according to most common UNECE (United Nation Economic council of Europe) and FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards) regulations, the heritage of lighting-based signalization will be shown and indicates the origin of recent legal limitations. Summarizing some possible options for regulation development in the different regions, an outlook based on pragmatic ways forward to implement outlines for color, size, position and intensity of dedicated light signals for automated vehicles will be shown. In order to enhance the regulatory framework in view of further lighting-related communication tasks, justification to both the regulatory bodies as well as to public needs to be given. Further scientific research, organized by the expert groups, can help to formulate a common industry position.
The technical boundary conditions such as resolution and necessary LED (Light emitting Diode) performance will be discussed. Additionally the regulatory needs will be summarized and a potential way of introduction of such signals will be identified.
CitationTiesler-Wittig, H., "Functional Application, Regulatory Requirements and Their Future Opportunities for Lighting of Automated Driving Systems," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0848, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0848.
- UNECE WP29 (ITS_AD-15-05a) TCE-5523_GTB presentation for 15th ITS-AD on ADS lighting and signalling.
- SAE International Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice, “Devices for ADS Lighting Draft Version,” SAE Standard J3134, June 2018
- GTB Working Group Signal lighting Documents WGSL383 and 384.
- Hamm, M., Huhn, W., and Reschke, J., “Ideas for Next Lighting Generations in Digitalization and Autonomous Driving,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1038, 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-1038.
- UNECE Road traffic convention.
- CIE S 004/E-2001 “Colors of Light Signals”.
- CIE 107-1994, “Review of the Official Recommendations of The CIE for the Colors of Signal Lights”.
- LSS presentations Panel forum ISAL 2017.
- BMVI-Ethik Kommission Autonomes und Vernetztes Fahren Bericht Juni, 2017.