This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
An Investigation on the Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Using Ethanol and n-Butanol
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in lean burn and diesel fueled Compression Ignition (CI) engines is one of the major challenges faced by automotive manufacturers. Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) exhaust after-treatment systems are well established technologies to reduce NOx emissions. However, each of these technologies has associated advantages and disadvantages for use over a wide range of engine operating conditions. In order to meet future ultra-low NOx emission norms, the use of both alternative fuels and advanced after-treatment technology may be required. The use of an alcohol fuel such as n-butanol or ethanol in a CI engine can reduce the engine-out NOx and soot emissions. In CI engines using LNTs for NOx reduction, the fuel such as diesel is utilized as a reductant for LNT regeneration. In the present work, a detailed evaluation of the performance of long breathing LNT (requiring fewer regenerations than conventional LNT) is carried out using ethanol and n-butanol as the reductants and are compared with diesel as the reductant. For this purpose, a long breathing LNT catalyst is examined on a flow bench under simulated exhaust conditions. The NOx adsorption period is decoupled from regeneration, and reductant quantities are varied at 3% and 8.5% oxygen concentration. Ethanol and n-butanol are found to be more effective as reductants compared to diesel in terms of NOx conversion and hydrogen yield during the LNT regeneration at the tested conditions. In order to further understand the impact of using ethanol and n-butanol, the formation of different hydrocarbon species due to reforming on the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and LNT catalyst has been studied as well.
CitationPurohit, D., Dev, S., Tan, Q., Sandhu, N. et al., "An Investigation on the Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Using Ethanol and n-Butanol," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0737, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0737.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- Heywood, J.B., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (Singapore: McGraw-Hill, 1988).
- Yanai, T., Dev, S., Han, X., Zheng, M. et al., “Impact of Fuelling Techniques on Neat N-Butanol Combustion and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine,” SAE International Journal of Engines 8(2):735-746, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0808.
- Gao, T., Divekar, P., Asad, U., Han, X. et al., “An Enabling Study of Low Temperature Combustion with Ethanol in a Diesel Engine,” J. Energy Resour. Technol 135(4):042203-042203-8, 2013, doi:10.1115/1.4024027.
- Han, X., Xie, K., Tjong, J., and Zheng, M., “Empirical Study of Simultaneously Low NOx and Soot Combustion with Diesel and Ethanol Fuels in Diesel Engine,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 134(11):112802-112802-7, 2012, doi:10.1115/1.4007163.
- Xie, K., Yanai, T., Yang, Z., Reader, G. et al., “Emission Analysis of HCCI Combustion in a Diesel Engine Fueled by Butanol,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0749, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0749.
- Maunula, T., “Combination of LNT and SCR for NOx Reduction in Passenger Car Applications,” Combustion Engines R. 53, nr 2, 2014.
- Jeftic, M., “Strategies for Enhanced After-Treatment Performance: Post Injection Characterization and Long Breathing with Low NOx Combustion,” Electronic theses and Dissertations, 2016.
- de Ojeda, W., Zheng, M., Han, X., Jeftic, M., et al., “Diesel Engine NOx Reduction,” US20150113961A1, 2015.
- Aversa, C., “Investigation on the Performance of a Long Breathing Lean NOx Trap Using N-Butanol”. Electronic theses and Dissertations, 2017.
- Takeshima, S., Tanaka, T., Iguchi, S., Araki, Y. et al., “Exhaust Purification Device of Internal Combustion Engine,” US5437153A, 1995.
- Takahashi, N., Yamazaki, K., Sobukawa, H., and Shinjoh, H., “The Low-Temperature Performance of NOx Storage and Reduction Catalyst,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 70(1):198-204, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2005.10.029.
- Fridell, E., Skoglundh, M., Westerberg, B., Johansson, S. et al., “NOx Storage in Barium-Containing Catalysts,” Journal of Catalysis 183(2):196-209, 1999, doi:10.1006/jcat.1999.2415.
- Suarez-Bertoa, R., Mendoza-Villafuerte, P., Bonnel, P., Lilova, V. et al., “On-Road Measurement of NH3 and N2O Emissions from a Euro V Heavy-Duty Vehicle,” Atmospheric Environment 139:167-175, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.04.035.
- Cheekatamarla, P.K. and Finnerty, C.M., “Reforming Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications,” Journal of Power Sources 160(1):490-499, 2006, doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.04.078.
- Nahar, G.A. and Madhani, S.S., “Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production by the Steam Reforming of Butanol: Analysis of Inorganic Gases and Light Hydrocarbons,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 35(1):98-109, 2010, doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.10.013.
- Gough, B., Kotrba, A., Salanta, G., Popovich, J. et al., “Transient Performance of an HC LNC Aftertreatment System Applying Ethanol as the Reductant,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1957, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1957.
- Haneda, M., Morita, T., Nagao, Y., Kintaichi, Y. et al., “CeO2-ZrO2 Binary Oxides for NOx Removal by Sorption,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3(21):4696-4700, 2001, doi:10.1039/B106074K.
- Phatak, A.A., Koryabkina, N., Rai, S., Ratts, J.L. et al., “Kinetics of the Water-Gas Shift Reaction on Pt Catalysts Supported on Alumina and Ceria,” Catalysis Today 123(1):224-234, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2007.02.031.
- Pihl, J., Parks, J., Daw, C., and Root, T., “Product Selectivity during Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3441, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3441.
- Kubiak, L., Matarrese, R., Castoldi, L., Lietti, L. et al., “Study of N2O Formation over Rh- and Pt-Based LNT Catalysts,” Catalysts 6(3):36, 2016, doi:10.3390/catal6030036.
- Kočí, P., Bártová, Š., Mráček, D., Marek, M. et al., “Effective Model for Prediction of N2O and NH3 Formation during the Regeneration of NOx Storage Catalyst,” Top Catal 56(1):118-124, 2013, doi:10.1007/s11244-013-9939-y.
- Castoldi, L., Nova, I., Lietti, L., and Forzatti, P., “Study of the Effect of Ba Loading for Catalytic Activity of Pt-Ba/Al2O3 Model Catalysts,” Catalysis Today 96(1):43-52, 2004, doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2004.05.006.
- Artioli, N., Matarrese, R., Castoldi, L., Lietti, L. et al., “Effect of Soot on the Storage-Reduction Performances of PtBa/Al2O3 LNT Catalyst,” Catalysis Today 169(1):36-44, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2010.10.062.
- Clayton, R.D., Harold, M.P., Balakotaiah, V., and Wan, C.Z., “Pt Dispersion Effects during NOx Storage and Reduction on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 Catalysts,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 90(3):662-676, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.04.029.
- Yu, S., Dev, S., Yang, Z., Leblanc, S. et al., “Early Pilot Injection Strategies for Reactivity Control in Diesel-Ethanol Dual Fuel Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0265, 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-0265.
- Epling, W.S., Campbell, G.C., and Parks, J.E., “The Effects of CO2 and H2O on the NOx Destruction Performance of a Model NOx Storage/Reduction Catalyst,” Catalysis Letters 90(1):45-56, 2003, doi:10.1023/A:1025864109922.
- Zhu, J., Shen, M., Wang, J., and Wang, X., “N2O Formation during NOx Storage and Reduction Using C3H6 as Reductant,” Catalysis Today 297:92-103, et al., 2017, doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2016.11.035.
- Bion, N., Epron, F., and Duprez, D., “Bioethanol Reforming for H2 Production. A Comparison with Hydrocarbon Reforming,” Catalysis 1-55, 2010, doi:10.1039/9781847559630-00001.