Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin
Published April 2, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Downloadable datasets for this paper availableAnnotation of this paper is available
The present paper is Part 1 of two consecutive studies. Part 1 describes three subjects: definition of the equivalent temperature (teq), measurements of teq using a clothed thermal manikin in a vehicle cabin, and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation. After defining teq, a method for measuring teq with a clothed thermal manikin was examined. Two techniques were proposed in this study: the definition of “the total heat transfer coefficient between the skin surface and the environment in a standard environment (hcal)” based on the thermal insulation of clothing (Icl), and a method of measuring Icl in consideration of the area factor (fcl), which indicates the ratio of the clothing surface to the manikin surface area. Then, teq was measured in an actual vehicle cabin by the proposed method under two conditions: a summer cooling condition with solar radiation and a winter heating condition without solar radiation. The results showed that teq, including the effects of the air temperature, air velocity and thermal radiation, was measured properly. Subsequently, a numerical thermal manikin was developed. The geometry of the clothed manikin was modeled by 3D laser scanning. The procedure for evaluating teq using the numerical thermal manikin was defined, based on a heat exchange model in consideration of the fcl effect. The evaluation procedure can be applied to all manikin control modes described in ISO 14505-2, namely, a constant temperature mode, a constant heat flux mode and a comfort equation mode. Finally, the calculation accuracy obtained with the numerical thermal manikin was confirmed under a uniform environment. The results showed good agreement with the measured data. The numerical thermal manikin was used in a vehicle simulation in Part 2, and the simulation results were validated in comparison with the vehicle measurements made in the first part.
CitationOi, H., Ozeki, Y., Suzuki, S., Ichikawa, Y. et al., "Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0697, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0697.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
- ISO “ISO14505-2:2006 , “Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment-Evaluation of Thermal Environments in Vehicles-Part 2: Determination of Equivalent Temperature,” Geneva, International Organization for Standardization, 2006.
- AIJ , “AIJES-H0005-2015 Standard for Evaluation of Indoor Thermal Environment using Thermal Manikin,” Tokyo, Architectural Institute of Japan, 2015.
- Han, T., Chen, K., Khalighi, B., Curran, A. et al. , “Assessment of Various Environmental Thermal Loads on Passenger Thermal Comfort,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 3(1):830-841, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1205.
- Chen, K., Kaushik, S., Han, T., Ghosh, D. et al. , “Thermal Comfort Prediction and Validation in a Realistic Vehicle Thermal Environment,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0645 , 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0645.
- Hepokoski, M., Curran, A., and Schwenn, T. , “A Comparison of Physiology-Based Metrics to Environment-Based Metrics for Evaluating Thermal Comfort,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0844 , 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0844.
- Han, T., Huang, L., Kelly, S., Huizenga, C. et al. , “Virtual Thermal Comfort Engineering,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0588 , 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0588.
- Ozeki, Y., Takabayashi, T., and Tanabe, S. , “Effects of Spectral Properties of Glass on Thermal Comfort of Car Occupants,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1074 , 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-1074.
- Roy, D., Petitjean, P., and Clodic, D. , “Influence of Various Heat Transfers on Passenger Thermal Comfort,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1075 , 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-1075.
- Nilsson, H.O. , “Comfort Climate Evaluations with Thermal Manikin Methods and Computer Simulation Models,” PhD Thesis of the Department for Work and Health, National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, 2004, ISBN 91-7045-703-4.
- Han, T. and Huang, L. , “A Sensitivity Study of Occupant Thermal Comfort in a Cabin Using Virtual Thermal Comfort Engineering,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1509 , 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-1509.
- Stancato, F., Ferreira, T., Araújo, G., Cruz, D. et al. , “Aircraft Cabin Thermal Comfort Evaluation Using Numerical Manikins,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-2562 , 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-2562.
- Wolfe, N., Mu, X., Huang, L., and Kadle, P. , “Cooling with Augmented Heated and Cooled Seats,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1193 , 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-1193.
- Curran, A., Peck, S., Schwenn, T., and Hepokoski, M. , “Improving Cabin Thermal Comfort by Controlling Equivalent Temperature,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 2(1):263-267, 2010, doi:10.4271/2009-01-3265.
- Kaushik, S., Han, T., and Chen, K. , “Development of a Virtual Thermal Manikin to Predict Thermal Sensation in Automobiles,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0315 , 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0315.
- Stancato, F., Conceicao, S., Papa, R., and Santos, L. , “CFD Thermal Comfort in Aircraft Cabin: A Comparative Study,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2561 , 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-2561.
- Wyon, D., Tennstedt, C., Lundgren, I., and Larsson, S. , “A New Method for the Detailed Assessment of Human Heat Balance in Vehicles-Volvo's Thermal Manikin, VOLTMAN,” SAE Technical Paper 850042 , 1985, doi:10.4271/850042.
- Wyon, D., Larsson, S., Forsgren, B., and Lundgren, I. , “Standard Procedures for Assessing Vehicle Climate with a Thermal Manikin,” SAE Technical Paper 890049 , 1989, doi:10.4271/890049.
- Dufton, A.F. , “The Equivalent Temperature of a Warmed Room,” JIHVE (now the Journal of CIBSE) 4:227-229, 1936.
- Madsen, T.L., Olesen, B.W., and Read, K. , “New Methods for Evaluation of the Thermal Environment in Automotive Vehicles,” ASHRAE Transactions 92(1B):38-54, 1986.
- Foda, E. and Sirén, K. , “A Thermal Manikin with Human Thermoregulatory Control: Implementation and Validation,” International Journal of Biometeorology, 2011, doi:10.1007/s00484-011-0506-6.
- Bohm, M., Norén, O., Holmér, I., and Nilsson, H. , “Development of Standard Test Methods for Evaluation of Thermal Climate in Vehicles,” Final Report on Project SMT4-CT95-2017,” Swedish Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala, 1999.
- ASHRAE , “Chapter 8 Thermal Comfort,” . In: ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc., 2001).