This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Numerical Investigation of Wiper Drawback
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Windscreen wipers are an integral component of the windscreen cleaning systems of most vehicles, trains, cars, trucks, boats and some planes. Wipers are used to clear rain, snow, and dirt from the windscreen pushing the water from the wiped surface. Under certain conditions however, water which has been driven to the edge of the windscreen by the wiper can be drawn back into the driver’s field of view by aerodynamic forces introduced by the wiper motion. This is wiper drawback, an undesirable phenomenon as the water which is drawn back on to the windscreen can reduce driver’s vision and makes the wiper less effective.
The phenomena of wiper drawback can be tested for in climatic tunnels using sprayer systems to wet the windscreen. However, these tests require a bespoke test property or prototype vehicle, which means that the tests are done fairly late in the development of the vehicle. Furthermore, these results do not provide significant insight into the mechanisms driving the wiper drawback.
In order to better understand wiper drawback a numerical simulation is presented of a configuration known to exhibit this phenomenon. This requires the inclusion into an aerodynamics solver of: moving wipers, a surface film model, and a representation of airborne spray.
Using the results of this simulation, the forces causing the drawback of the water film, along with the mechanism for introducing these forces are studied. Through understanding the driving factors in wiper drawback, it can be avoided earlier in the development cycle.
CitationJilesen, J., Gaylard, A., and Linden, T., "Numerical Investigation of Wiper Drawback," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0640, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0640.
- Gaylard, A.P., Kirwan, K., and Lockerby, D.A., “Surface Contamination of Cars: A Review,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D, 2017.
- Hagemeier, T., Hartmann, M., and Thevenin, D., “Practice of Vehicle Soiling Investigations: A Review,” International Journal of Multiphase Flow 37(8):860-875, 2011.
- Anderson, M., “Window-Cleaning Device,” U.S. Patent 743,801, Nov. 10, 1903.
- Jepson, J.W., “Wind-Shield Cleaner,” U.S. Patent 1,183,463 A, May 16, 1916.
- Gaylard, A.P., Wilson, A.C. and Bambrook, G.S.J., “A Quasi-Unsteady Description of Windscreen Wiper Induced Flow Structures,” in 6th MIRA International Conference on Vehicle Aerodynamics, 2006.
- Clarke, J.S. and Lumley, R.R., “Problems Associated with Windscreen Wiping,” SAE Technical Paper 600134, 1960, doi:10.4271/600134.
- Dawley, M.W., “Aerodynamic Effects on Automotive Components,” SAE Technical Paper 650134, 1965, doi:10.4271/650134.
- Jallet, S., Devos, S., Maubray, D., Sortais, J.-L. et al., “Numerical Simulation of Wiper System Aerodynamic Behavior,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0036, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0036.
- Billot, P., Jallet, S., and Marmonier, F., “Simulation of Aerodynamic Uplift Consequences on Pressure Repartition - Application on an Innovative Wiper Blade Design,” SAE Paper 2001-01-0043, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-1043.
- Foucart, H. and Blain, E., “Water-Flow Simulation on Vehicle Panels by Taking into Account the Calculated Aerodynamic Field,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3572, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-3572.
- Strumolo, G., “VAWT: The Virtual Aerodynamic/Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel,” Journal of Engineering Mathematics 43(2-4):173-187, 2002.
- Gaylard, A., Fagg, M., Bannister, M., Duncan, B. et al., “Modelling A-Pillar Water Overflow: Developing CFD and Experimental Methods,” SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems 5(2):789-800, 2012.
- Jilesen, J., Gaylard, A., Linden, T., and Alajbegovic, A., “Update on A-Pillar Overflow Simulation,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0717, 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-0717.
- Chen, S. and Doolen, D., “Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 30:329-364, 1998.
- Qian, T., D'Humieres, D., and Lallemand, P., “Lattice BGK Models for Navier-Stokes Equation,” Europhys Lett. 17(6):479-484, 1992.
- Kotopati, R., Keating, A., Kandasamy, S., Duncan, B. et al., “The Lattice-Boltzmann-VLES Method for Automotive Fluid Dynamics Simulation, a Review,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-26-0057, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-26-0057.
- Kuthada, T. and Cyr, S., “Approaches to Vehicle Soiling,” . In: Progress in Vehicle Aerodynamics, IV, Numerical Methods. (Renningen, 2006).
- Jilesen, J., Gaylard, A., Duncan, B., Konstantinov, A., and Wanderer, J., “Simulation of Rear and Body Side Vehicle Soiling by Road Sprays Using Transient Particle Tracking,” SA Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 6(1), 2013.
- Dasarathan, D., Jilesen, J., Croteau, D., and Ayala, R., “CFD Water Management Design for a Passenger Coach with Correlation,” in 2016 SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress, Rosemont, IL, 2016.
- O'Rourke P. and Amsden A.A., “The TAB Method for Numerical Calculations of Spray Droplet Breakup,” in International Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exposition, Toronto, 1987.
- O'Rourke, P. and Amsden, A., “A Spray/Wall Interaction Submodel for the KIVA-3 Wall Film Model,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0271, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0271.
- Mundo, C., Sommerfeld, M., and Tropea, C., “Droplet-Wall Collisions: Experimental Studies of the Deformation and Breakup Process,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21:151-173, 1995.
- Hodgson, G., Passmore, M., Garmory, A., and Gaylard, A., “An Objective Measure for Automotive Surface Contamination,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0727, 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-0727.
- Chen, H., Chen, S., and Matthaeus, W.H., “Recovery of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using a Lattice-Gas Boltzmann Method,” Phys. Rev. A 45(8):R5339-R5342, 1992.
- Borg, A. and Vevang, R., “On the Development of a Wind Tunnel method for the Prediction of Exterior Contamination,” in 5th MIRA International Conference on Vehicle Aerodynamics, UK, Oct. 13-14, 2004.
- Campos F., Mendonca F. and Weston S., “Vehicle Soiling Simulation,” in 6th Mira International Conference on Vehicle Aerodynamics, Gaydon, Warwickshire, UK, 2006.
- Jilesen, J., Gaylard, A., Spruss, I., Kuthada, T. et al., “Advances in Modelling A-Pillar Water Overflow,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1549, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1549.
- Bannister, M., “Drag and Dirt Deposition Mechanisms of External Rear View Mirrors and Techniques Used for Optimization,” SAE 2000 Transactions, Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems 109(6), 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0486.
- Chen, H., Kandasamy, S., Orszag, S., Shock, R. et al., “Extended Boltzmann Kinetic Equation for Turbulent Flows,” Science 301:633-636, 2003.
- Frisch, U., Hasslacher, B., and Pomeau, Y., “Lattice-Gas Automata for the Navier-Stokes Equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56:1505-1508, 1986.
- Karbon, K. and Longmans, S., “Automobile Exterior Water Flow Analysis Using CFD and Wind Tunnel Visualization,” SAE Technical Paper 980035, 1988, doi:10.4271/980035.
- Kotapati, R., Shock, R., and Chen, H., “Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Flows over Backward-Facing Inclined Steps,” International Journal of Modern Physics C 25(1), 2014.
- Kruse, N. and Chen, K., “Exterior Water Management Using a Custom Euler-Lagrange Simulation Approach,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0101, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0101.