Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Published April 2, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Downloadable datasets for this paper availableAnnotation of this paper is available
Historically, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles have focused on tailpipe emissions. However, sound environmental policy requires a more holistic well-to-wheels (WTW) assessment that includes both production of the fuel and its use in the vehicle. The present research explores the net change in WTW GHG emissions associated with moving from regular octane (RO) to high octane (HO) gasoline. It considers both potential increases in refinery emissions from producing HO fuel and potential reductions in vehicle emissions through the use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such fuel. Three refinery configurations of varying complexity and reforming capacity were studied. A set of simulations covering different levels of HO gasoline production were run for each refinery configuration. Two engine designs were considered: one which could take little advantage of higher octane fuel to increase efficiency, and one which could be adjusted further to take advantage of the higher octane. WTW GHG emissions were analyzed within a life cycle analysis framework, where the upstream emissions of raw material and utility inputs to the refinery were added to the direct refinery emissions and product combustion emissions from the vehicle. The ‘well-to-tank’ (WTT) GHG emissions changes with increasing HO production were relatively insignificant compared to the total WTW emissions for gasoline and on average insensitive to the refinery configurations and operations studied. In terms of ‘tank-to-wheel’ impacts, the more octane-responsive engine design supported larger increases in fuel efficiency than the less octane-responsive engine design. The net change in WTW GHG reductions (gCO2/mile) was therefore strongly influenced by the design of engine.
- Nozomi Yokoo - Toyota Motor Corp.
- Koichi Nakata - Toyota Motor Corp.
- Bryan Chapman - ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.
- Dedric Joseph - ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.
- Nagore Sabio - ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.
- Jeffrey Farenback-Brateman - ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.
- Christopher Goheen - ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.
- Abdelhadi Sahnoune - ExxonMobil Fuels and Lubricants Co.
CitationYokoo, N., Nakata, K., Chapman, B., Joseph, D. et al., "Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0629, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0629.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
- Speth, R.L. et al., “Economic and Environmental Benefits of Higher-Octane Gasoline,” Environ. Sci. Tech. 48(12):6561-6568, 2014.
- Lu, Z., Han, J., Wang, M., Cai, H. et al., “Well-to-Wheels Analysis of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Use of Vehicles with Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines on Low Octane Gasoline-Like Fuel,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9(3):527-545, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2208.
- Han, J. et al., “Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options (Report No. ANL/ESD-16/9),” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 2016.
- Han, J. et al., “Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels (Report No. ANL/ESD-15/10),” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 2015.
- Elgowainy, A., Han, J., Cai, H., Wang, M. et al., “Energy Efficiency and Green House Gas Emission Intensity of Petroleum Products at US Refineries,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 48(13):7612-7624, 2014, doi:10.1021/es5010347.
- Morganti, K. et al., “Synergistic engine-fuel technologies for light-duty vehicles: Fuel economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” Applied Energy 208:1538-1561, 2017, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.08.213.
- Wang, K. and Merchant, S., “Integrated Process for Making High-Octane Gasoline,” U.S. Patent 9,637,423, May 2, 2017.
- Anderson, J., Leone, T., Shelby, M., Wallington, T. et al., “Octane Numbers of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends: Measurements and Novel Estimation Method from Molar Composition,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1274, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1274.
- Chow, E., “Exploring the Use of a Higher Octane Gasoline for the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet,” MSc Mechanical Engineering thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Boston, 2013.
- Hirshfeld, D.S., Kolb, J.A., Anderson, J.E. et al., “Refining Economics of U.S. Gasoline: Octane Ratings and Ethanol Content,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 48(19):11064-11071, 2014.
- Sabio, N. et al., “Multiobjective Optimization under Uncertainty of the Economic and Life-Cycle Environmental Performance of Industrial Processes,” AIChE J. 60(6):2098-2121, 2014, doi:10.1002/aic.14385.
- U.S. Energy Information Agency, “Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes,” data for 2017, www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_d_nus_VTR_mgalpd_a.htm.
- Argonne National Lab, “Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model,” greet.es.anl.gov, 2016 version (software).
- SimaPro Life Cycle Analysis, version 8 (software), Pre Consultants.
- Kalghatgi, G.H., Nakata, K., and Mogi, K., “Octane Appetite Studies in Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0244, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0244.
- Sasaki, N., Nakata, K., Kawatake, K., Sagawa, S. et al., “The Effect of Fuel Compounds on Pre-ignition under High Temperature and High Pressure Condition,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1984, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1984.
- Sasaki, N. and Nakata, K., “Effect of Fuel Components on Engine Abnormal Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1276, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1276.
- Mittal, V. and Heywood, J.B., “The Shift in Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines over the Last 70 Years,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2(2):1-10, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-2622.
- (a)Yokoo, N., Nakata, K., Iida, N., and Ueda, T., “Study of Knocking Indicators for Automobile Spark Ignition Engines,” JSAE Congress Proceedings 20186225, 2018. (b)Yokoo, N., “Study of Knocking Indicators for Automobile Spark Ignition Engines,” Thesis, Keio University, 2017.
- Leppard, W.R., “The Chemical Origin of Fuel Octane Sensitivity,” SAE Technical Paper 902137, 1990, doi:10.4271/902137.
- Nakata, K., Uchida, D., Ota, A., Utsumi, S. et al., “The Impact of RON on SI Engine Thermal Efficiency,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2007, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-2007.