This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Unified, Scalable and Replicable Approach to Development, Implementation and HIL Evaluation of Autonomous Shuttles for Use in a Smart City
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
As the technology in autonomous vehicle and smart city infrastructure is developing fast, the idea of smart city and automated driving has become a present and near future reality. Both Highway Chauffeur and low speed shuttle applications are tested recently in different research to test the feasibility of autonomous vehicles and automated driving. Based on examples available in the literature and the past experience of the authors, this paper proposes the use of a unified computing, sensing, communication and actuation architecture for connected and automated driving. It is postulated that this unified architecture will also lead to a scalable and replicable approach. Two vehicles representing a passenger car and a small electric shuttle for smart mobility in a smart city are chosen as the two examples for demonstrating scalability and replicability. For this purpose, the architecture in the passenger car is transferred to the small electric vehicle and used in its automation for demonstrating both scalability and replicability. High Level control and low level lateral control are presented in this paper. The parameter space based parametric control design approach that we are using to achieve scalable automated driving controllers is presented in the paper along with a discussion of how to evaluate performance and a brief description of the planned proof-of-concept test deployment.
CitationLi, X., Zhu, S., Gelbal, S., Cantas, M. et al., "A Unified, Scalable and Replicable Approach to Development, Implementation and HIL Evaluation of Autonomous Shuttles for Use in a Smart City," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0493, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0493.
- Gelbal , S.Y. , Chandramouli , N. , Wang , H. , Aksun-Guvenc , B. et al. A Unified Architecture for Scalable and Replicable Autonomous Shuttles in a Smart City Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 2017 IEEE International Conference on 2017 3391 3396
- Wen , B. , Gelbal , S.Y. , Aksun-Guvenc , B. , and Guvenc , L. Localization and Perception for Control and Decision Making of a Low Speed Autonomous Shuttle in a Campus Pilot Deployment SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles
- Ulbrich , S. and Markus , M. Probabilistic Online POMDP Decision Making for Lane Changes in Fully Automated Driving Intelligent Transportation Systems-(ITSC), 2013 16th International IEEE Conference on 2013 2063 2067
- Brechtel , S. , Tobias G. , and Rüdiger D. Probabilistic Decision-Making under Uncertainty for Autonomous Driving Using Continuous POMDPs Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2014 IEEE 17th International Conference on 2014 392 399
- Chen , C. , Seff , A. , Kornhauser , A. , and Xiao J. Deepdriving: Learning Affordance for Direct Perception in Autonomous Driving Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision 2015 2722 2730
- Montemerlo , M. , Becker , J. , Bhat , S. , Dahlkamp , H. et al. Junior: The Stanford Entry in the Urban Challenge Journal of Field Robotics 25 9 569 597 2008
- Bacha , A. , Bauman , C. , Faruque , R. , Fleming , M. et al. Odin: Team Victortango's Entry in the Darpa Urban Challenge Journal of Field Robotics 25 8 467 492 2008
- Cantas , M.R. , Kavas , O. , Tamilarasan , S. , Gelbal , S.Y. et al. 2019 Use of Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation for Developing Connected Autonomous Vehicle (CAV) Applications WCX19: SAE World Congress Experience April 9-11 Detroit, MI
- Zhu , S. , Gelbal , S.Y. , Li , X. , Cantas , M.R. et al. Parameter Space and Model Regulation Based Robust, Scalable and Replicable Lateral Control Design for Autonomous Vehicles 2018 IEEE 57th Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) Miami Beach 2018
- Guvenc , L. , Aksun-Guvenc , B. , Demirel , B. , and Emirler , M.T. Control of Mechatronic Systems Institution of Engineering and Technology 2017
- Dadras , S. Path Tracking Using Fractional Order Extremum Seeking Controller for Autonomous Ground Vehicle SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0094 2017 10.4271/2017-01-0094