This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Modelling and Control of a Hybrid Urban Bus
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 02, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
This paper describes the development and on-vehicle validation testing of next generation parallel hybrid electric powertrain technology for use in urban buses. A forward-facing MATLAB/Simulink powertrain model was used to develop a rule-based deterministic control system for a post-transmission parallel hybrid urban bus. The control strategy targeted areas where conventional powertrains are typically less efficient, focused on improving fuel economy and emissions without boosting vehicle performance. Stored electrical energy is deployed to assist the IC engine system leading to an overall reduction in fuel consumption while maintaining vehicle performance at a level comparable with baseline conventional IC engine operation. Regenerative braking is integrated with the existing braking systems on the vehicle, and the control system tailored to maximise the amount of energy recuperated during deceleration events and accelerator pedal lift off without adversely impacting on the normal behaviour of the vehicle. The control system was implemented on both prototype single (Streetlite) and double-deck (Streetdeck) vehicle configurations for real vehicle testing with partner Wrightbus. The hybridisation has reduced equivalent CO2 emissions by 34% (single-deck)/ 35% (double-deck) over the conventional Euro VI diesel vehicle on the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership UK bus cycle (based on London Bus Route 159). These results compare favourably with alternative powertrain technologies currently available with similar certification. Moreover, the next generation hybrid urban bus has several distinct advantages as it is less restricted by infrastructure, range, or terrain issues, and has a comparatively lower purchase price point. Hybrid bus technologies offer the option of maintaining existing service levels without significant modifications to operations or budgets while achieving significant reductions in average fleet emissions.
CitationMurtagh, M., Early, J., Stevens, G., Cunningham, G. et al., "Modelling and Control of a Hybrid Urban Bus," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0354, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0354.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- Mahmoud, M., Garnett, R., Ferguson, M., and Kanaroglou, “Electric Buses: A Review of Alternative Powertrains,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 62:673-684, September 2016, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.05.019.
- UK Automotive Council, “Bus Technology Roadmap,” www.automotivecouncil.co.uk, accessed Oct. 2018.
- Transport for London, “Ultra Low Emission Zone,” https://tfl.gov.uk/modes/driving/ultra-low-emission-zone, accessed Jan. 2019.
- Sadler Consultants Ltd, “Urban Access Regualations in Europe,” http://urbanaccessregulations.eu/, accessed Jan. 2019.
- The Wall Street Journal, “China Has 487 Electric-Car Makers, and Local Governments Are Clamoring for More,” July 19, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-has-487-electric-car-makers-and-local-governments-are-clamoring-for-more-1531992601, accessed 2019.
- Hu, B., Chen, C., Zhan, Z., Su, X. et al., “Progress and Recent Trends in 48V Hybridisation and e-Boosting Technology on Passenger Vehicles - A Review,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 232(11), 2018, doi:10.1177/0954407017729950.
- Sabri, M., Danapalasingam, K., and Rahmat, M., “A Review on Hybrid Electric Vehicles Architecture and Energy Management Strategies,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 53:1433-1442, Jan. 2016, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.036.
- Enang, W. and Bannister, C., “Modelling and Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (A Comprehensive Review),” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 74:2012-1239, 2017, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.075.
- Huang, Y., Wang, H., Khajepour, A., Li, B. et al., “A Review of Power Management Strategies and Component Sizing Methods for Hybrid Vehicles,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 96:132-144, 2018, doi:/ 10.1016/j.rser.2018.07.020.
- Stevens, G., Murtagh, M., Kee, R., Early, J. et al., “Development of a Vehicle Model Architecture to Improve Modeling Flexibility,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(3):1328-1366, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1138.
- LowCVP, “Testing and Accrediation Procedures,” https://www.lowcvp.org.uk/Hubs/leb/TestingandAccreditation/TestingAccreditationProcedures.htm, accessed Oct. 2018.
- Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy “UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory,” https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/greenhouse-gas-reporting-conversion-factors-2016, accessed Oct. 2018.
- Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership “LEB Certificates,” https://www.lowcvp.org.uk/Hubs/leb/LEBCertificates.htm, accessed Oct. 2018.
- Correa, G., Munoz, P., Falaguerra, T., and Rodriguez, C.R., “Performance Comparison of Conventional, Hybrid, Hydrogen and Electric Urban Buses Using Well to Wheel Analysis,” Energy 141:537-549, Dec. 2017, doi:/ 10.1016/j.energy.2017.09.066.
- Millo, F., Rolando, L., Fuso, R., and Zhao, J., “Development of a New Hybrid Bus for Urban Public Transportation,” Applied Energy 157:583-594, 2015.