This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published January 15, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels. This operation mode leads to substantial improvements in terms of fuel consumption up to highest load conditions. Developed in close collaboration with Volkswagen Motorsport and the FKFS, the experimental investigations are carried out on a single cylinder test bench at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The test bench is directly derived from the Volkswagen WRC 1.6l DI-SI race engine. In a numerical approach, the 3D-CFD engine development tool QuickSim is used to gain a detailed understanding of charge motion, mixture formation, and combustion. As a first step, we want to assess the effects of engine operating parameters such as engine load and engine speed on both boosted conventional and SACI operation. Secondly, we want to give an overview on the magnitude of the formulation of NOx and particle emissions in the presence of different ignition modes. The latter is aimed at addressing one of the many remaining questions in order to apply SACI operation to series production engines.
- Daniel Koch - Technical University of Munich
- Vinicius Berger - Technical University of Munich
- Alexander Bittel - Technical University of Munich
- Maximilian Gschwandtner - Technical University of Munich
- Georg Wachtmeister - Technical University of Munich
- Marco Chiodi - FKFS
- Andreas Kaechele - FKFS
- Michael Bargende - FKFS / IVK, University Stuttgart
- Donatus Wichelhaus - Volkswagen AG
CitationKoch, D., Berger, V., Bittel, A., Gschwandtner, M. et al., "Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0039, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0039.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
- Chiodi, M., Kaechele, A., Bargende, M., Wichelhaus, D. et al. , “Development of an Innovative Combustion Process: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition,” SAE Int. J. Engines 10(5):2486-2499, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-24-0147.
- Chiodi, M., Kaechele, A., Bargende, M., Koch, D. et al. , “Development of an Innovative Combustion Process: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition,” in: Bargende, M., Reuss, H.C., and Wiedemann, J., in 18. Internationales Stuttgarter Symposium, doi:10.1007/978-3-658-21194-3_22.
- Manofsky, L., Vavra, J., Assanis, D., and Babajimopoulos, A. , “Bridging the Gap between HCCI and SI: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1179, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1179.
- Hyvönen, J., Haraldsson, G., and Johansson, B. , “Operating Conditions Using Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion during Combustion Mode Transfer to SI in a Multi-Cylinder VCR-HCCI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0109, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0109.
- Persson, H., Hultqvist, A., Johansson, B., and Remón, A. , “Investigation of the Early Flame Development in Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion Using High Speed Chemiluminescence Imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0212, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0212.
- Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX: 32007R0715, Accessed 07/24/18.
- Lewis, A., Akehurst, S., Turner, J., Leach, F. et al. , “Particulate Emissions from a Highly Boosted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” International Journal of Engine Research 19(3):347-359, 2018, doi:10.1177/1468087417710583.
- Semenov, N.N. , Chain Reactions (in Russian), Goskhimizdat, Leningrad, 1934, English transl., Oxford University Press, 1935.
- Gussak, L., Karpov, V., and Tikhonov, Y. , “The Application of Lag-Process in Prechamber Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 790692, 1979, doi:10.4271/790692.
- Onishi, S., Jo, S., Shoda, K., Jo, P. et al. , “Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC) - A New Combustion Process for Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 790501, 1979, doi:10.4271/790501.
- Najt, P. and Foster, D. , “Compression-Ignited Homogeneous Charge Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 830264, 1983, doi:10.4271/830264.
- Thring, R. , “Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 892068, 1989, doi:10.4271/892068.
- Ishibashi, Y. and Asai, M. , “Improving the Exhaust Emissions of Two-Stroke Engines by Applying the Activated Radical Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 960742, 1996, doi:10.4271/960742.
- Duret, P. and Venturi, S. , “Automotive Calibration of the IAPAC Fluid Dynamically Controlled Two-Stroke Combustion Process,” SAE Technical Paper 960363, 1996, doi:10.4271/960363.
- Heywood, J.B. , Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988).
- Willand, J., Nieberding, R., Vent, G., and Enderle, C. , “The Knocking Syndrome - Its Cure and Its Potential,” SAE Technical Paper 982483, 1998, doi:10.4271/982483.
- Dec, J. and Yang, Y. , “Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock and with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions - Using Conventional Gasoline,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3(1):750-767, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1086.
- Christensen, M., Johansson, B., Amnéus, P., and Mauss, F. , “Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition,” SAE Technical Paper 980787, 1998, doi:10.4271/980787.
- Dec, J., Yang, Y., Dernotte, J., and Ji, C. , “Effects of Gasoline Reactivity and Ethanol Content on Boosted, Premixed and Partially Stratified Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC),” SAE Int. J. Engines 8(3):935-955, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0813.
- Olsson, J., Tunestal, P., and Johansson, B. , “Closed-Loop Control of an HCCI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1031, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-1031.
- Haraldsson, G., Tunestål, P., Johansson, B., and Hyvönen, J. , “Transient Control of a Multi Cylinder HCCI Engine during a Drive Cycle,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0153, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-0153.
- Koopmans, L. and Denbratt, I. , “A Four Stroke Camless Engine, Operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Mode with Commercial Gasoline,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3610, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-3610.
- Lavoie, G., Martz, J., Wooldridge, M., and Assanis, D. , “A Multi-Mode Combustion Diagram for Spark Assisted Compression Ignition,” Combustion and Flame 157(6):1106-1110, 2010.
- Reuss, D., Kuo, T-W., Silvas, G., Natarajan, V. et al. , “Experimental Metrics for Identifying Origins of Combustion Variability during Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition,” International Journal of Engine Research 9(5):409-434, First Published Oct. 21, 2008, doi:10.1243/14680874JER01108.
- Middleton, R., Olesky, L., Lavoie, G., Wooldridge, M. et al. , “The Effect of Spark Timing and Negative Valve Overlap on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition Combustion Heat Release Rate,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 35(3):3117-3124, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.proci.2014.08.021.
- Yun, H., Wermuth, N., and Najt, P. , “High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):1190-1201, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0899.
- Koch, D., Wachtmeister, G., Wentsch, M., Chiodi, M. et al. , “Investigation of the Mixture Formation Process with Combined Injection Strategies in High-Performance SI-Engines,” in 16th Stuttgart Symposium, Stuttgart - Germany, March 2016
- UNECE Addendum 48: Regulation No. 49: Uniform provisions concerning the measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression-ignition engines and positive ignition engines for use in vehicles, https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs/2013/R049r6e.pdf, accessed 07/24/18.
- UNECE Addendum 82: Regulation No. 83: Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to the emission of pollutants according to engine fuel requirements, https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs/r083r4e.pdf, accessed 07/24/18.
- PEMs4Nano, part of the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, “Horizon 2020,” https://www.pems4nano.eu/.
- DownToTen, part of the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, “Horizon 2020,” http://www.downtoten.com/.
- SUREAL-23, part of the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, “Horizon 2020,” http://sureal-23.cperi.certh.gr/.
- FIA Technical Regulations, Article 255A, https://www.fia.com/file/37755/download/12795.