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Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published May 30, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs. Demonstrated on a 2015 Fiat 500e BEV, this system integrates a semi-hermetic refrigeration loop with a coolant network and serves three functions: (1) heating and/or cooling vehicle traction components (battery, power electronics, and motor) (2) heating and cooling of the cabin, and (3) waste energy harvesting and re-use. The modes of operation allow a heat pump and air conditioning system to function without reversing the refrigeration cycle to improve thermal efficiency. The refrigeration loop consists of an electric compressor, a thermal expansion valve, a coolant-cooled condenser, and a chiller, the latter two exchanging heat with hot and cold coolant streams that may be directed to various components of the thermal system. The coolant-based heat distribution is adaptable and saves significant amounts of refrigerant per vehicle. Also, a coolant-based system reduces refrigerant emissions by requiring fewer refrigerant pipe joints. The authors present bench-level test data and simulation analysis and describe a preliminary control scheme for this system.
- Sourav Chowdhury - Mahle Behr Troy Inc.
- Lindsey Leitzel - Mahle Behr Troy Inc.
- Mark Zima - Mahle Behr Troy Inc.
- Mark Santacesaria - Mahle Behr Troy Inc.
- Gene Titov
- Jason Lustbader - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- John Rugh - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Jon Winkler - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Aamir Khawaja - FCA US LLC
- Murali Govindarajalu - FCA US LLC
CitationChowdhury, S., Leitzel, L., Zima, M., Santacesaria, M. et al., "Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)," SAE Technical Paper 2018-37-0026, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-37-0026.
Data Sets - Support Documents
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- Titov, G., Lustbader, J., Leighton, D., and Kiss, T., “MATLAB/Simulink Framework for Modeling Complex Coolant Flow Configurations of Advanced Automotive Thermal Management Systems,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0230, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0230.
- SAE International , “Battery Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption and Range Test Procedure,” SAE J1634, Rev. October 2012.
- Brooker, A., Gonder, J., Wang, L., Wood, E. et al. , “FASTSim: A Model to Estimate Vehicle Efficiency, Cost and Performance,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0973, 2015, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-0973.