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Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published May 30, 2018 by SAE International in United States
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The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs. Demonstrated on a 2015 Fiat 500e BEV, this system integrates a semi-hermetic refrigeration loop with a coolant network and serves three functions: (1) heating and/or cooling vehicle traction components (battery, power electronics, and motor) (2) heating and cooling of the cabin, and (3) waste energy harvesting and re-use. The modes of operation allow a heat pump and air conditioning system to function without reversing the refrigeration cycle to improve thermal efficiency. The refrigeration loop consists of an electric compressor, a thermal expansion valve, a coolant-cooled condenser, and a chiller, the latter two exchanging heat with hot and cold coolant streams that may be directed to various components of the thermal system. The coolant-based heat distribution is adaptable and saves significant amounts of refrigerant per vehicle. Also, a coolant-based system reduces refrigerant emissions by requiring fewer refrigerant pipe joints. The authors present bench-level test data and simulation analysis and describe a preliminary control scheme for this system.
- Sourav Chowdhury - Mahle Behr Troy Inc.
- Lindsey Leitzel - Mahle Behr Troy Inc.
- Mark Zima - Mahle Behr Troy Inc.
- Mark Santacesaria - Mahle Behr Troy Inc.
- Jason Lustbader - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- John Rugh - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Jon Winkler - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Aamir Khawaja - FCA US LLC
- Murali Govindarajalu - FCA US LLC
CitationChowdhury, S., Leitzel, L., Zima, M., Santacesaria, M. et al., "Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)," SAE Technical Paper 2018-37-0026, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-37-0026.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
- Kowsky , C. , Wolfe , E. , Leitzel , L. , and Oddi , F. Unitary HPAC System SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 5 2 1016 1025 2012 https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1050
- Leighton , D. Combined Fluid Loop Thermal Management for Electric Drive Vehicle Range Improvement SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 8 2 711 720 2015 https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1709
- Kiss , T. and Lustbader , J. Comparison of the Accuracy and Speed of Transient Mobile A/C System Simulation Models SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 7 2 739 754 2014 https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-0669
- Titov , G. , Lustbader , J. , Leighton , D. , and Kiss , T. MATLAB/Simulink Framework for Modeling Complex Coolant Flow Configurations of Advanced Automotive Thermal Management Systems SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0230 2016 10.4271/2016-01-0230
- SAE International 2012
- Brooker , A. , Gonder , J. , Wang , L. , Wood , E. et al. FASTSim: A Model to Estimate Vehicle Efficiency, Cost and Performance SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0973 2015 https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-0973