Water Load Determination Approach in Two Wheeler Exhaust System
Published October 30, 2018 by SAE International in United States
Annotation of this paper is available
Future emission norms in India (BS6) necessitates the 2 wheeler industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Engine operation at stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) would result in a good performance, durability and least emissions. To keep the AFR close to stoichiometric condition, an Oxygen sensor is placed in the exhaust system, which detects if air-fuel mixture is rich (λ<1) or lean (λ>1) and provides feedback to fuel injection system for suitable fuel control.
O2 sensor has a ceramic element, which needs to be heated to a working temperature for its functioning. The ceramic element would break (thermal shock) if water in liquid form comes in contact with it when the element is hot. To counter this, oxygen sensor is either fully heated only when all the water in the exhaust system is evaporated, which results in delayed closed loop control, or is capable to withstand higher amount of water in the exhaust system by for example being applied with thermal shock protection and a protective tube. It’s a challenge to control the HC emissions during first 100 seconds of engine start, as the catalyst is not functioning during this duration. Also, the system runs in open loop for first 50 seconds, as the lambda sensor is not functioning. Hence, determining the amount of water present in exhaust and having a protective layer for lambda sensor against water would enable early start of sensor functioning.
The present paper explains an approach to determine the maximum water droplet size and water flow rate using a special Liquid sensor mounted in the exhaust pipe. Test cases are defined at various engine and exhaust gas temperatures to determine an appropriate set up and methodology for measurement on a 2Wheeler. The test cases are repeated on various 2wheelers available in the Indian market and influence of different exhaust configurations, mounting location of the Lambda sensor are analysed.
The information of water droplet size and water flow rate are driving factors for the design and application of lambda sensor. With thermal shock protection over lambda sensor a full heater voltage can be applied to sensor even before all the water has evaporated in the exhaust system. An early sensor readiness results in a quick closed loop control of the fuel mixture thus reducing emissions.