This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Simplified Analytical/Experimental Method for Evaluating Large Buses and Motor Coaches for Rollover Protection
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published August 27, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Event: Automotive Technical Papers
This paper discusses a simplified analytical/experimental method for evaluating and designing large buses and motor coaches for rollover protection. The proposed method makes use of the work-energy principle in analyzing the energy-absorbing capacity of the roof and sidewall structure of the vehicle. The basic structural unit is treated as a nonlinear, elastoplastic, 4-bar linkage, with the links connected at hinge points. During rollover, the deformation of the structure is focused at these hinge points and energy absorption is achieved through plastic bending and rotation of the hinge material. The proposed method allows the evaluation and design of these plastic hinges to achieve the energy-absorbing requirements for the vehicle. This paper demonstrates the proposed methodology by evaluating an exemplar large bus design against the European ECE-R.66 rollover design standard. This same vehicle was similarly evaluated in a referenced study, using the finite element analysis (FEA) method. The objective of both studies was to determine a minimum weight solution for the vehicle structure. The minimum weight solution must satisfy both the minimum energy absorption requirements and the structural deformation limitations placed on the design by the ECE-R.66 standard. Both a baseline design and an optimized (minimum weight) design were evaluated in this study. The baseline design served as a reference point in determining the weight-saving potential for the vehicle. The FEA results show a weight-saving potential of 78 kg (172 lb) while the simplified, 4-bar linkage model gives a slightly heavier design with a weight-saving potential of 34 kg (77 lb), indicating that the proposed method of analysis is slightly conservative compared to the FEA method.
CitationPauls, L., "A Simplified Analytical/Experimental Method for Evaluating Large Buses and Motor Coaches for Rollover Protection," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-5033, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-5033.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
- NHTSA , “Notice of Proposed Rule Making, 46090 Federal Register, Vol. 79, No. 151, Wednesday, Aug. 6, 2014, Proposed Rules.
- NHTSA , “Large Bus Structural Integrity - FMVSS No. 227,” Office of Regulatory Analysis and Evaluation, National Center for Statistics and Analysis, July 2014, Preliminary Regulatory Evaluation.
- United Nations , E/ECE/324, E/ECE/Trans/505, Addendum 65, Regulation No. 66, Revision 1, “Uniform Technical Prescriptions Concerning the Approval of Large Passenger Vehicles with Regard to the Strength of Their Superstructure,” Feb. 22, 2006.
- United Nations , E/ECE/324 Rev.2/Addendum 106: Regulation 107 Rev.1, E/ECE/TRANS/505, “Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which Can Be Fitted and/or Be Used Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of These Prescriptions,” page 108 Annex 5, “Calculation of total Energy,” Oct. 8, 2004.
- Tech, T. and Iturrioz, I. , “Structural Optimization of a Bus in Rollover Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-36-0131 , 2009.
- Wilkinson, T. and Hancock, G. , “Tests for the Compact Web Slenderness of Cold-Formed Rectangular Hollow Sections,” Research Report R744, Centre for Advanced Structural Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, June 1997.
- Goñi, R. and Bayo, E. , “A New Method to Assess the Rotation Capacity of Hollow Sections Based in Multibody Theory,” III European Conference on Computational Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, June 5-8, 2006, doi:10.1007/1-4020-5370-3_694.
- Wilkinson, T. and G. Hancock , “Compact or Class 1 Limits for Rectangular Hollow Sections in Bending,” Centre for Advanced Structural Engineering, The Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
- DOT Federal Transit Administration , “Study & Report to Congress: Applicability of Maximum Axle Weight Limitations to Over-the-Road and Public Transit Buses,” Pursuant to Senate Report No. 107-38, Dec. 2003.
- MORR Transportation Consulting Ltd. , “An Analysis of Transit Bus Axle Weight Issues,” Prepared for: American Public Transportation Association, Nov. 2014, MORR Consulting, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
- Young, W. and Budynas, R. , Roark’s Formulas for Stress and Strain Seventh Edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002). ISBN:0-07-072542-X.
- Bruhn, E.F. , Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures, Fourth Printing (Cincinnati, OH, Tri-State Offset Company, Jan. 1965), Chapter A-12.