This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Energetic, Environmental and Range Estimation of Hybrid and All-Electric Transformation of an Existing Light Utility Commuter Aircraft
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 30, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Today it is necessary to face the energetic, environmental, and safety-related issues of a significant industrial sector such as aeronautic one. It is a marginal contributor to today global GHG emissions (less than 3%), In any case, the associated impacts grows with the increase of air traffic with annual rate 5%. Consequently, aviation will need to face four fundamental problems for the future:
- 1the overall impact of aviation is expected to grow up to 10÷15% of global GHG emissions by 2050;
- 2the emissions of pollutants by commercial aviation affects the fragile atmospheric layers in the low stratosphere;
- 3the increasing age of the flying fleet deals with increasing maintenance and safety issues;
- 4the dependence on fossil fuels relates to problems of geopolitical instability and consequence volatility of prices.
Substantial innovations are expected for both reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts of aviation and reducing the age of the fleets. They mostly relate to the decrease of weights and the introduction of environmental friendly propulsion systems, such as hybrid and all-electric propulsion.
This paper will produce an assessment of different propulsive systems according to the first law of thermodynamics and environmental impacts. It assumes a well-tested light transport/commuter aircraft as reference architecture and produces a comparative analysis of different green propulsion systems including all electric and hybrid against actual aircrafts. The analysis assumes that the electric or hybrid configurations may not increase the overall mass of the aircraft. Energy model has been reformulated for the different configurations and considers both an analytical model based on basic flight mechanics and a new formulation of the Breguet range equation, which has been specifically formulated for both hybrid and all-electric airplanes.
CitationTrancossi, M. and Pascoa, J., "Energetic, Environmental and Range Estimation of Hybrid and All-Electric Transformation of an Existing Light Utility Commuter Aircraft," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1933, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1933.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 8]|
- Airbus , “Global Market Forecast 2017-2036 - Growing Horizons,” Airbus Industries, 2017, ISBN:978-2-9554382-2-6, https://www.airbus.com/content/dam/corporate-topics/publications/backgrounders/Airbus_Global_Market_Forecast_2017-2036_Growing_Horizons_full_book.pdf, accessed June 2018.
- Boeing , “Current Market Outlook 2017-2036,” Boeing Corp., 2017, accessed June 2018, http://www.boeing.com/resources/boeingdotcom/commercial/market/current-market-outlook-2017/assets/downloads/2017-cmo-6-19.pdf.
- ICAO , “Agenda Item 17: Environmental Protection - Present and Future Trends in Aircraft Noise and Emissions,” International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal, 2013.
- Rädel, G. and Shine, K.P. , “Radiative Forcing by Persistent Contrails and Its Dependence on Cruise Altitudes,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 113(D7), 2008.
- Brasseur, G.P. and Gupta, M. , “Impact of Aviation on Climate: Research Priorities,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91(4):461-464, 2010.
- VV.AA., “Aviation’s Contribution to Climate Change,” ICAO, Environmental Report 2010, Vol. 1.
- Emadi, A. and Ehsani, M. , “Electrical System Architectures for Future Aircraft,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-2645 , 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-2645.
- Kim, H.D., Brown, G.V., and Felder, J.L. , “Distributed Turboelectric Propulsion for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft,” 2008 International Power Lift Conference, Royal Aeronautical Society, London, July 22-24, 2008.
- Bradley, T., Moffitt, B., Parekh, D., Fuller, T. et al. , “Energy Management for Fuel Cell Powered Hybrid-Electric Aircraft,” 7th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 2009, 4590.
- Pornet, C., Kaiser, S., Isikveren, A.T., and Hornung, M. , “Integrated Fuel-Battery Hybrid for a Narrow-Body Sized Transport Aircraft,” Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, An International Journal 86(6):568-574, 2014.
- Zhang, H., Saudemont, C., Robyns, B., and Petit, M. , “Comparison of Technical Features between a more Electric Aircraft and a Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 2008. VPPC’08, IEEE, Sept. 2008, 1-6.
- Motapon, S.N., Dessaint, L.A., and Al-Haddad, K. , “Comparative Study of Energy Management Schemes for a Fuel-Cell Hybrid Emergency Power System of More-Electric Aircraft,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 61(3):1320-1334, 2014.
- Lieh, J., Spahr, E., Behbahani, A., and Hoying, J. , “Design of Hybrid Propulsion Systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,” 47th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Aug. 2011, 6146.
- Naayagi, R. T. , “A Review of More Electric Aircraft Technology,” IEEE International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability (ICEETS), 2013, Apr. 2013, 750-753.
- Williamson, M. , “Air Power the Rise of Electric Aircraft,” Engineering & Technology 9(10):77-79, 2014.
- Bejan, A. and Siems, D.L. , “The Need for Exergy Analysis and Thermodynamic Optimization in Aircraft Development,” Exergy, An International Journal 1(1):14-24, 2001.
- Bejan, A. , “Constructal Theory: Tree-Shaped Flows and Energy Systems for Aircraft,” Journal of Aircraft 40(1):43-48, 2003.
- Rosen, M.A. and Etele, J. , “Aerospace Systems and Exergy Analysis: Applications and Methodology Development Needs,” International Journal of Exergy 1(4):411-425, 2004.
- Bejan, A., Charles, J.D., and Lorente, S. , “The Evolution of Airplanes,” Journal of Applied Physics 116(4):044901, 2014.
- Drela, M. , “Power Balance in Aerodynamic Flows,” AIAA Journal 47(7):1761-1771, 2009.
- Drela, M. , “Design Drivers of Energy-Efficient Transport Aircraft,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 4(2):602-618, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-2495.
- Arntz, A., Atinault, O., and Merlen, A. , “Exergy-Based Formulation for Aircraft Aeropropulsive Performance Assessment: Theoretical Development,” AIAA Journal 53(6):1627-1639, 2014.
- Traub, L.W. , “Range and Endurance Estimates for Battery-Powered Aircraft,” Journal of Aircraft 48(2):703-707, 2011.
- Seresinhe, R., Lawson, C., and Sabatini, R. , “Environmental Impact Assessment, on the Operation of Conventional and More Electric Large Commercial Aircraft,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 6(1):56-64, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2086.
- Baharozu, E., Soykan, G., and Ozerdem, M.B. , “Future Aircraft Concept in Terms of Energy Efficiency and Environmental Factors,” Energy 140:1368-1377, 2017.
- Sliwinski, J., Gardi, A., Marino, M., and Sabatini, R. , “Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Integration in Unmanned Aircraft,” Energy 140:1407-1416, 2017.
- IPCC , “Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, and New York, 2013, 1395-1445, published Jan. 31, 2014.
- VV.AA, Islander Owners Handbook (UK, Bitten Norman, 1975).
- EASA , “EASA.A.388 Britten Norman BN2,” European Aviation Safety Agency, 2011, https://www.easa.europa.eu/documents/type-certificates/aircraft-cs-25-cs-22-cs-23-cs-vla-cs-lsa/easaa388.
- VV.AA, “Britten Norman BN2 Islander Brocure,” Britten Norman, UK, 2011.
- VV.AA., “Operator’s Manual Lycoming O-540, IO-540 Series,” Approved by FAA, Lycoming, 2006, https://www.lycoming.com/sites/default/files/O%20%26%20IO-540%20Oper%20Manual%2060297-10.pdf.
- Kim, J.G. et al. , “A Review of Lithium and Non-Lithium Based Solid State Batteries,” Journal of Power Sources 282:299-322, 2015.
- VV.AA., “Battery Space Catalog,” retrieved June 2018, http://www.batteryspace.com/.
- YASA , “YASA 700 R E-Motor Product Sheet,” retrieved June 2018, http://www.yasa.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/YASA-750-Product-Sheet.pdf.
- Falck, R.D., Chin, J., Schnulo, S.L., Burt, J. M. et al. , “Trajectory Optimization of Electric Aircraft Subject to Subsystem Thermal Constraints,” 18th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, 2017, 4002.
- Papathakis, K.V., Ehmann, D., Sessions, A., and Burkhardt, P. , “A NASA Approach to Safety Considerations for Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbeds,” 2017.
- VV.AA, “M250 First Network Directory,” Rolls Royce, UK, 2017, accessed June 2018, https://www.rolls-royce.com/~/media/Files/R/Rolls-Royce/documents/customers/defence-aerospace/M250%20FIRST%20network%20directory%202015.pdf.
- Pegors, D. , “Advanced Allison Small Turboprop Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 871055 , 1987, doi:10.4271/871055.
- VV.AA, “FAA Lycoming IO-540 Series Type Certificate,” 2006, Retrieved June 2018, http://rgl.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgMakeModel.nsf/0/ffae5a2bb5506dcc8625747a00650001/$FILE/1E4.pdf.
- Bower, G. , “GM Versus Tesla: Bolt EV And Model 3 Battery Packs Compared,” InsideEVs, 2018, accessed June 2018, https://insideevs.com/gm-versus-tesla-bolt-ev-tesla-model-3-battery-packs-compared/.
- VV.AA, “Rotax 915 915|141 hp (iS/iSc) Technical Description,” BRP-Rotax GmbH & Co KG, 2017, https://www.flyrotax.com/files/Bilder/Produkte%20Rotax/Datasheets/Data_sheet_915%20iS_iSc_A4_18.01.2018.pdf.
- VV.AA., “ISCC 205 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS Version 3.0,” ISCC GMBH, DE, 2016, Valid from: Aug. 9, 2016 (Date of Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2016/1361), https://www.iscc-system.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/ISCC_205_GHG_Emissions_3.0.pdf.
- VV.AA., “EPA Emission Factors for Greenhouse Gas Inventories,” US Environmental Protection Agency, 2018, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018-03/documents/emission-factors_mar_2018_0.pdf.
- Warner D.M. et al. , “Advanced Strong Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Engineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis,” CARB Agreement 15CAR018, Principal Investigators: Al Steier, Munro & Associates, and Alan Munday, Ricardo Strategic Consulting, 2017.
- VV.AA., “Flexible Cables and Cords,” Anixter Ltd., 2017.
- Stoll, A.M. and Veble Mikic, G. , “Design Studies of Thin-Haul Commuter Aircraft with Distributed Electric Propulsion,” 16th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, 2016, 3765.