This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Modeling Articulated Brake Component Wear to Assist with Routing Decisions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 5, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Very few activities the brake engineer engages in can induce as much vexation as trying to find a satisfying routing for the flexible brake components such as hoses, wheel speed sensors, and electric parking brake cables. Ever increasing wheel end content, ever decreasing space, more complex suspensions, and bulkier (but lighter weight) suspension components provide quite the morass through which the components must be routed through. When routing is finalized - and free of any major issues - there frequently remains some combinations of articulation position and component tolerances that allow a light “friendly” touch between components (such as a sensor wire and a surface of a bracket or strut tube), or near misses where clearance exists but raises “what if” questions around what would happen if the tolerances would stack up slightly differently on another vehicle. These conditions are usually evaluated painstakingly by experienced engineers, and either corrected with design changes or accepted if deemed of extremely low risk - but these evaluations are generally subjective. The work presented in this paper introduces an objective assessment based on predicted wear of the component in a contact condition. It is intended to supplement - but not replace - the judgment of experienced and conscientious engineers. Data from customer usage measurements that describe the relative frequency of reaching various steering and suspension travel positions are combined with an energy-based wear model (in turn based on simple measurements of the contact condition) to generate a predicted wear volume. This wear volume is then translated through geometric calculations to a wear depth through the protective outer layer (such as hose outer cover or wire insulation), which can then ultimately be used to project the service life of the component before wear-through of the cover. The model is explained, and then demonstrated through a series of case studies.
CitationAntanaitis, D., "Modeling Articulated Brake Component Wear to Assist with Routing Decisions," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1890, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1890.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Riefe, M. and Yen, E. , “Prediction of Brake Lining Life Using an Energy-Based CAE Approach,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1019 , 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-1019.
- Antanaitis, D. and Lee, H. , “Methodology for Sizing and Validating Life of Brake Pads Analytically,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 7(4):1295-1303, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2495.
- Huq, M.Z. and Celis, J.-P. , “Expressing Wear Rate in Sliding Contacts Based on Dissipated Energy,” Wear 252:375-383, 2002.
- Zhang, S.W. , “Advances in Studies on Rubber Abrasion,” Tribology International 22:717-778, April 2, 1989.
- Felhos, D. and Karger-Kocsis, J. , “Tribological Testing of Peroxide-Cured EPDM Rubbers with Different Carbon Black Contents under Dry Sliding Conditions against Steel,” Tribology International 41:404-415, 2008.
- Khan, M.S., Franke, R., Lehmann, D., Heinrich, G. et al. , “Physical and Tribological Properties of PTFE Micropowered-Filled EPDM Rubber,” Tribology International 42:890-896, 2009.
- Zhao, G., Wang, T., and Wang, Q. , “Friction and Wear Behavior of the Polyurethane Composites Reinforced with Potassium Titanate Whiskers under Dry Sliding and Water Lubrication,” J. Mater. Sci. 46:6673-6681, 2011, doi:10.1007/s10853-011-5620-7.
- Rajashekaraiah, H., Bheemappa, S., Yang, S.H., Mohan, S. et al. , “Abrasive Wear Behavior of Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer Composites: A Statistical Approach,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing 17(6):755-763, doi:10.1007/s12541-016-0093-x.
- Villaggio, P. , “Wear of an Elastic Block,” Meccanica 36:243-249, 2001.
- Reye, T. , “Zur Theorie der Zapfenreibung,” Der Civilingenieur 4:235-255, 1860.
- Archard, J.F. , “Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 24(8):981-988, 1953, doi:10.1063/1.1721448.
- Liu, T., Rhee, S.K., and Lawson, K.L. , “A Study of Wear Rates and Transfer Films of Friction Materials,” Wear 60:1-12, 1980, doi:10.1016/0043-1648(80)90246-X.
- Rhee, S.K. , “Wear Equation for Polymers Sliding against Metal Surfaces,” Wear 16(6):431-445, 1970, doi:10.1016/0043-1648(70)90170-5.
- Unal, M. and Arda , “Friction and Wear Performance of some Thermoplastic Polymers and Polymer Composites against Unsaturated Polyester,” Applied Surface Science 252, 2006.
- Howell, C. T. , “Investigation of the Dynamics of Low-Tension Cables”, Doctoral Dissertation for Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992.
- Lake, G.J. and Lindley, P.B. , “The Mechanical Fatigue Limit for Rubber,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 9:1233-1251, April 4, 1965.
- Mars, W.V. and Fatemi, A. , “A Literature Survey of Fatigue Analysis Approaches for Rubber,” International Journal of Fatigue 24:949-961, 2002.
- Kumar, S. and Kanagaraj, G. , “Investigation on Mechanical and Tribological Behaviors of PA6 and Graphite-Reinforced PA6 Polymer Composites,” Arab J. Sci. Eng. 41:4347-4357, 2016, doi:10.1007/s13369-016-2126-2.