This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Effects of Injection Rate Profiles on Auto-Ignition in Ignition Quality Tester
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 10, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Ignition quality tester (IQT) is a standard experimental device to determine ignition delay time of liquid fuels in a controlled environment in the absence of gas exchange. The process involves fuel injection, spray breakup, evaporation and mixing, which is followed by auto-ignition. In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used for prediction of auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol. In particular, the sensitivity of the ignition behavior to different injection rate profiles is investigated. Fluctuant rate profile derived from needle lift data from experiments performs better than square rate profile in ignition delay predictions. DEE, when used with fluctuant injection rate profile resulted in faster ignition, while for ethanol the situation was reversed. The contrasting results are attributed to the difference in local mixing. The fluctuant injection profile yields larger spray velocity variations promoting fuel evaporation and local turbulent mixing. The suitable ignition conditions were reached earlier for DEE with fluctuant injection profile, whereas ethanol exhibits pseudo-homogeneous mixing due to its lower cetane number. Ignition was faster for square rate profile due to ignition in end tube for ethanol. The fluctuant injection leads to a better homogeneity for ethanol due to longer time available for mixing. The nature of heat release rate, auto-ignition and combustion were altered by the fluctuant injection rate profile when compared to square rate injection profile.
CitationLuo, Y., Mubarak Ali, M., Huang, Z., and Im, H., "Effects of Injection Rate Profiles on Auto-Ignition in Ignition Quality Tester," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1695, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1695.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Chu, S. and Majumdar, A., “Opportunities and Challenges for a Sustainable Energy Future,” Nature 488(7411):294-303, 2012.
- U.S. Energy Information Administration, “MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline,” http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/special/mtbe.html, 2000.
- REN21, “Renewables 2014 Global Status Report,” http://www.ren21.net/REN21Activities/GlobalStatusReport.aspx, 2014.
- Sarathy, S.M., Oßwald, P., Hansen, N., and Kohse-Höinghaus, K., “Alcohol Combustion Chemistry,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 44:40-102, 2014.
- Knothe, G., Matheaus, A.C., and Ryan, T.W., “Cetane Numbers of Branched and Straight-Chain Fatty Esters Determined in an Ignition Quality Tester,” Fuel 82(8):971-975, 2003.
- Allard, L.N., Webster, G.D., Hole, N.J., Ryan, T.W. et al., “Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT),” SAE Technical Paper 961182, 1996, doi:10.4271/961182.
- Bogin, G.E., DeFilippo, A., Chen, J.Y., Chin, G. et al., “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of n-Heptane Autoignition in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT),” Energy & Fuels 25(12):5562-5572, 2011.
- Bogin, G.E., Osecky, E., Ratcliff, M.A., Luecke, J. et al., “Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) Investigation of the Negative Temperature Coefficient Region of Alkane Autoignition,” Energy & Fuels 27(3):1632-1642, 2013.
- Haas, F.M., Ramcharan, A., and Dryer, F.L., “Relative Reactivities of the Isomeric Butanols and Ethanol in an Ignition Quality Tester,” Energy & Fuels 25(9):3909-3916, 2011.
- Kuti, O.A., Yang, S.Y., Hourani, N., Naser, N. et al., “A Fundamental Investigation into the Relationship between Lubricant Composition and Fuel Ignition Quality,” Fuel 160:605-613, 2015.
- RyanIII, T., “The Development of New Procedures for Rating the Ignition Quality of Fuels for Diesel Engines,” DTIC Document, 1986.
- Zheng, Z., Badawy, T., Henein, N., and Sattler, E., “Investigation of Physical and Chemical Delay Periods of Different Fuels in the Ignition Quality Tester,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 135(6):061501, 2013.
- Metcalf, O.J., Swarts, A., and Yates, A., “A Study of the Ignition-Delay Character of n-Heptane in the IQT™ Combustion Bomb Using CFD Modelling,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0021, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0021.
- Naik, C.V., Puduppakkam, K., Meeks, E., and Liang, L., “Ignition Quality Tester Guided Improvements to Reaction Mechanisms for n-Alkanes: n-Heptane to n-Hexadecane,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0149, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0149.
- Bogin, G.E., Osecky, E., Chen, J.Y., Ratcliff, M.A. et al., “Experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Analysis of Largen-Alkane Ignition Kinetics in the Ignition Quality Tester,” Energy & Fuels 28(7):4781-4794, 2014.
- Bogin, G., Dean, A.M., Ratcliff, M.A., Luecke, J. et al., “Expanding the Experimental Capabilities of the Ignition Quality Tester for Autoigniting Fuels,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(1):353-367, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0741.
- El Ella, H.M.A., Gauthier, J.D., and Webster, G.D., “Study on the Effects of Nozzle Fuel Spray Pattern on Cetane Number Measurement as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™),” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1594, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-1594.
- Ramadan, O., Webster, G., Menard, L., Wilcox, A. et al., “Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) Precision Improvements from Using the Totally Automated Laboratory Model (TALM) Technology: Technology Update, Part-2: Mini Inter-Laboratory Study Using the IQT™-TALM,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0805, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0805.
- Yang, S.Y., Naser, N., Chung, S.H., and Cha, J., “Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel, n-Heptane, and iso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 8(3):537-548, doi:10.4271/2015-01-9074.
- Bogin, G.E., De Filippo, A., Chen, J., Chin, G. et al., “Modeling the Fuel Spray and Combustion Process of the Ignition Quality Tester with KIVA-3V,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO, 2010.
- Badra, J.A., Sim, J., Elwardany, A., and Jaasim, M., “Numerical Simulations of Hollow Cone Injection and Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion with Naphtha Fuels,” ASME 2015 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2015, V002T06A019-V002T06A019.
- Richards, K., Senecal, P., and Pomraning, E., CONVERGE 2.3.0 Theory Manual (Madison, WI: Convergent Science Inc., 2013).
- Senecal, P., Pomraning, E., Richards, K., and Som, S., “In Grid-Convergent Spray Models for Internal Combustion Engine CFD Simulations,” ASME 2012, Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2012, 697-710.
- Mubarak Ali, M., Elhagrasy, A., Sarathy, M., Chung, S. et al., “Auto-Ignition and Spray Characteristics of n-Heptane and iso-Octane Fuels in Ignition Quality Tester,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0299, 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-0299.
- Reitz, R. and Diwakar, R., “Effect of Droplet Breakup on Fuel Sprays,” SAE Technical Paper 860469, 1986, doi:10.4271/860469.
- Schmidt, D.P. and Rutland, C., “A New Droplet Collision Algorithm,” Journal of Computational Physics 164(1):62-80, 2000.
- O'Rourke, P.J. and Amsden, A.A., “The TAB Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup,” SAE Technical Paper 872089, 1987, doi:/10.4271/872089.
- Amsden, A. A., Orourke, P., and Butler, T., “KIVA-2: A Computer Program for Chemically Reactive Flows with Sprays,” NASA STI/recon Technical Report N, 89, 27975, 1989.
- Abramzon, B. and Sirignano, W., “Droplet Vaporization Model for Spray Combustion Calculations,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 32(9):1605-1618, 1989.
- Nayagam, V., “Quasi-Steady Flame Standoff Ratios during Methanol Droplet Combustion in Microgravity,” Combustion and Flame 157(1):204-205, 2010.
- Babajimopoulos, A., Assanis, D., Flowers, D., Aceves, S. et al., “A Fully Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and Multi-Zone Model with Detailed Chemical Kinetics for the Simulation of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines,” International Journal of Engine Research 6(5):497-512, 2005.
- Sivasankaralingam, V., Raman, V., Mubarak Ali, M., Alfazazi, A. et al., “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Ethanol/Diethyl Ether Mixtures in a CI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2180, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2180.