This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Material Efficiency Ratio to Evaluate the Methods for Improving the Torsional Rigidity of a Pickup Chassis Frame
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
While offering improved crash worthiness and significant lightweighting opportunities, the increased use of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) may compromise the stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles due to reduced part thickness. Different methods to improve the torsional rigidity were studied on a pickup chassis frame. These methods include adding bulkhead pairs as reinforcement, increasing the thicknes of frame parts, and enlarging the closed sections on the rails. Structural optimization was conducted for each stiffness improvement method and the minimal mass increase required to reach the improvement targets was obtained. A material efficiency ratio μ is proposed in this research and used as a criterion to evaluate the efficiency of a mass increase to improve the structural stiffness and NVH characteristics of vehicles. Based on this parameter, the methods to improve the torsional rigidity of the pickup frame in all design spaces were evaluated. The adding bulkhead pair option offers the highest material efficiency ratio, but the potential for improving the torsional rigidity is limited. Conversely, increasing the part thickness and enlarging the closed sections on rails give higher torsion improvement potential, while the material efficiency ratio is much lower.
Structural optimization combining adding bulkhead pairs and enlarging the rail sections was conducted to fully utilize the advantages of both rigidity improvement methods. And the results show higher material efficiency and more potential for rigidity improvement than each individual method. This material efficiency ratio proposed is valuable in vehicle development to evaluate the efficiency of a design change for lightweighting.
|Technical Paper||Non-Linear Finite Element Recovery Analysis of an Automotive Chassis Frames|
|Technical Paper||AUTOMOBILE RIDING-COMFORT|
|Technical Paper||A Cradle for New Power—Chassis Features of the Firebird|
CitationLiang, J., Powers, J., and Stevens, S., "A Material Efficiency Ratio to Evaluate the Methods for Improving the Torsional Rigidity of a Pickup Chassis Frame," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1024, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1024.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
- Tamareli, C.M., “AHSS101- the Evolving Use of Advanced High-Strength Steels for Automotive Applications,” (Southfield, Michigan U.S, Steel Market Development Institute, 2011).
- Morgans, S., “AHSS technologies in the 2011 Ford explorer,” Great Designs in Steel. Livonia, Michigan, U. S. May 2011.
- Grabowski, T., “Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra body 1500 cab structure review,” Great Designs in Steel. Livonia, Michigan, U. S. May 2014.
- Coakley, D. andZischke, J., “Advanced high-strength steel technologies in the 2016 Nissan Maxima,” Great Designs in Steel. Livonia, Michigan, U. S. May 2014.
- Swartzell, TA., “Light weighting and steel technologies in the all-new 2016 Chevrolet Malibu and 2017 Buick LaCrosse,” Great Designs in Steel, Livonia, Michigan, U. S. May 2016.
- Nakagaito, T.,Matsuoka, S.,Kaneko, S.,Kawasaki, Y. et al., “Method for manufacturing high strength galvanized steel with excellent formability,” U.S. Patent: US20140182748A1, 2014.
- Thomas, GA. and Garza-Martinez, LG., “High strength steel exhibiting good ductility and method of production via quenching and partitioning treatment by zinc bath,” PCT/US2014/038425, 2014.
- Petersen, E.,Case, E.D.,Elengika, S.,Choi, J. et al., “Development of innovative steel grades and their applications in automotive structures,” . In: Great Designs in Steel. (Livonia, Michigan, U. S, 2016).
- Powers, J.,Thomas, G.,Gill, A., andCase, ED., “AK Steel’ S Development of AHSS Steel Grades for Body Structures and their Applications,” International Automotive Body Congress, Dearborn, Michigan, U. S. 2016.
- Gauchia, A.,Diaz, V.,Boada, M.J.L., andBoada, B., “Torsional Stiffness and Weight Optimization of a Real Bus Structure,” International Journal of Automotive Technology 11(1):41-47, 2010.
- Krishnan, M.H.,Sreeraj, N.,Bhaskar, C.,Nagaraju, G. et al., “Establishing Correlation between Torsional and Lateral Stiffness Parameters of BIW and Vehicle Handling Performance,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars-Mech. Syst. 4(1):22-31, 2011.
- Li, Z. andMei, J., “A lightweight optimization method of vehicle body structure design,” . In: Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 world automotive congress 8. (2012), 1063-1074.
- Wang, H.,Li, G.,Hu, Z.,Wang, Y. et al., “Lightweight Design of BIW Based on Stiffness and Mode,” . In: Proceedings of SAE-China Congress. Vol. 2015. (2015), 477-484.
- Pine, T.,Lee, M.M.K., andJones, T.B., “Weight Reduction in Automotive Structures-an Experimental Study on Torsional Stiffness of Box Sections,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 213(1):59-71, 1999.
- Zuo, W.J. andBai, J.T., “Cross-Sectional Shape Design and Optimization of Automotive Body with Stamping Constraints,” International Journal of Automotive Technology 17(6):1003-1011, 2016.
- Liang, J.,Powers, J.,Stevens, S. et al., “A method of evaluating the joint effectiveness on contribution to global stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0376, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0376.
- Hornung, M. andHajj, M., “Structural Bonding for Lightweight Construction,” Materials Science Forum 618, 619:49-56, 2009.
- Liang, J.,Liang, J.,Fang, G.,Pan, Z. et al., “Evaluation of Spot Weld Models in Structural Dynamic Analysis of Automotive Body in White,” Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering 24(1):84-90, 2011.
- Bendsoe, M.P., “Optimization of Structural Topology, Shape, and Material,” (Berlin Heidelberg, Springer, 1995), doi:10.1007/978-3-662-03115-5.
- Bobaru, F. andMukherjee, S., “Shape Sensitivity Analysis and Shape Optimization in Planar Elasticity Using the Element-Free Galerkin Method,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 190(32, 33):4319-4337, 2001.
- Eschenauer, H.A. andOlhoff, N., “Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures: A Review,” Applied Mechanics Reviews 54(4):331-390, 2001.
- Tanskanen, P., “The Evolutionary Structural Optimization Method: Theoretical Aspects,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 191(47, 48):5485-5498, 2002.
- Takezawa, A.,Nishiwaki, S.,Izui, K., andYoshimura, M., “Structural Optimization Based on Topology Optimization Techniques Using Frame Elements Considering Cross-Sectional Properties,” Struct. Multidisc. Optim. 34(1):41-60, 2007.
- Kawamoto, A.,Matsumori, T.,Yamasaki, S.,Nomura, T. et al., “Heaviside Projection Based Topology Optimization by a PDE-Filtered Scalar Function,” Struct. Multidisc. Optim. 44(1):19-24, 2011.
- Fraternali, F.,Marino, A.,Sayed, T.E., andCioppa, A.D., “On the Structural Shape Optimization through Variational Methods and Evolutionary Algorithms,” Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures 18:225-243, 2011.
- Candan, S.,Garcelon, J.,Balabanov, V., andVenter, G., “Shape optimization using ABAQUS and VisualDOC,” 8th AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposium at Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, Long Beach, CA, Sep 2000.
- Leiva, JP., Wang, L., Recek, S., Watson, BC., “Automobile design using the Genesis structural optimization program,” NAFEMS seminar: Advances in Optimization Technologies for Product Design, Chicago, U. S. Oct 2001.
- Leiva, JP., Watson, BC., Kosaka, I., “A Comparative study of topology and topometry structural optimization methods within the Genesis software,” 7th World Congresses of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Seoul, Korea. May 2007.
- Quinn, GC., “Full automobile topology design optimized to maximize structural stiffness subject to multiple static load cases including inertial relief,” 13th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis Optimization Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, U. S. Sep 2010.
- Bryer, G. andEccles, C., “Structural Optimization for Vehicle Dynamics Loadcases,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars-Electron. Electr. Syst. 4(1):24-29, 2011.
- Leiva, JP., “Structural Optimization Methods and Techniques to Design Efficient Car Bodies,” International Automotive Body Congress, Troy, Michigan, U. S. Nov 2011.
- Ide, T.,Otomori, M.,Leiva, J.P., andWatson, B.C., “Structural Optimization Methods and Techniques to Design Light and Efficient Automatic Transmission of Vehicles with Low Radiated Noise,” Struct. Multidisc. Optim. 50(6):1137-1150, 2014.
- Wu, X.,Zheng, W., andZhou, P., “Topology optimization design of bus body structure based on Altair-Optistruct,” 2014 International Conference on Mechanics and Civil Engineering, Wuhan, China, Dec 2014.
- Rashid, ASY., Ramli, R., Haris, SM., and Alias, A., “Improving the Dynamic Characteristics of Body-in-White Structure Using Structural Optimization,” The Scientific World Journal. Article ID: 190214, 2014.
- Qu, X., Pagaldipti, N., Fleury, R., and Saiki, J., “Thermal topology optimization in Optistruct software,” 17th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference. AIAA 2016-3829, Washington, D.C. U.S. Jun 2016.
- Nair, N., “CAE driven multidisciplinary optimization of vehicle systems,” 13th LS-Dyna forum. Bamberg, Germany, Oct 2014.
- Christensen, PW. andKlarbring, A., “An introduction to structural optimization,” chapter 1. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-8665-6, 2009.
- Leiva, JP., “Industrial applications using structural optimization with Genesis,” 4thWorld Congress of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. Dalian, China. Jun 2001.
- Leiva, JP., Watson BC. and Kosaka I., “A comparative study of topology and topometry structural optimization methods within the Genesis software,” 7thWorld Congress of Structural and Multidisciplinary OptimizationSeoul, Korea. May 2007.