This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
The Effect of Gasoline Metallic Additives on Low Speed Pre-Ignition
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is used as an octane-enhancing metallic additive for unleaded gasoline which can prevent engine knock by proactive reaction with the hydrocarbon free radicals before starting the auto-ignition of hydrocarbons. However it has been pointed out that MMT causes automotive catalysts clogging and spark plug severely fouling. Therefore, many countries have fuel standards that prohibit or limit the usage of MMT. Nevertheless, some countries still use MMT as there are no restrictions imposed by fuel standards. As mentioned in several papers, metallic additives of engine oil such as calcium cause an abnormal combustion phenomenon called low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in turbocharged spark ignition engines. In contrast, the effect of metallic additives of gasoline such as MMT on LSPI has not been studied. In this study, it was confirmed that manganese in gasoline increased the possibility of LSPI, and that lower volatile gasoline which contains heavy aromatic components tended to show higher sensitivity to manganese concentration in turbocharged spark ignition engines. These analyses also showed that the amounts of deposits containing manganese increased in the combustion chamber. In addition, it was observed that several particles became glowing in the combustion chamber and became the starting point of LSPI. With regard to the mechanism underlying the phenomenon, it is supposed that the heat of reaction produced by the oxidizing MMT in gasoline droplets or deposits containing manganese form the ignition source and increase the possibility of LSPI.
CitationNomura, T., Ueura, H., Tanaka, Y., IIda, Y. et al., "The Effect of Gasoline Metallic Additives on Low Speed Pre-Ignition," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0936, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0936.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
- Blumberg, K. and Walsh, M. , “Status Report Concerning the Use of MMT in Gasoline,” International Council on Clean Transportation, Sep. 2004.
- Lyons, J. , “Impacts Associated with the Use of MMT as an Octane Enhancing Additive In Unleaded Gasolines - A Critical Review,” Report prepared for Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers Association and Association of International Automobile Manufacturers of Canada, Sierra Research Report No. SR02-07-01, Jul. 2002.
- Hoekman, S. and Broch, A. , “MMT Effects on Gasoline Vehicles: A Literature Review,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9(1):322-343, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-9073.
- ACEA, AAM, EMA, JAMA et al. , “Worldwide Fuel Charter Fifth Edition,” Sep. 2013.
- Takeuchi, K., Fujimoto, K., Hirano, S., and Yamashita, M. , “Investigation of Engine Oil Effect on Abnormal Combustion in Turbocharged Direct Injection-Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(3):1017-1024, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1615.
- Hirano, S., Yamashita, M., Fujimoto, K., and Kato, K. , “Investigation of Engine Oil Effect on Abnormal Combustion in Turbocharged Direct Injection - Spark Ignition Engines (Part 2),” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2569 , 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2569.
- Okada, Y., Miyashita, S., Izumi, Y., and Hayakawa, Y. , “Study of Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines 7(2):584-594, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1218.
- Kassai, M., Shiraishi, T., Noda, T., Hirabe, M. et al. , “An Investigation on the Ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Component Containing Fuel Droplets Using Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9(3):469-480, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2168.
- Zahdeh, A., Rothenberger, P., Nguyen, W., Anbarasu, M. et al. , “Fundamental Approach to Investigate Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):246-273, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0340.
- Sasaki, N., Nakata, K., Kawatake, K., Sagawa, S. et al. , “The Effect of Fuel Compounds on Pre-Ignition under High Temperature and High Pressure Condition,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1984 , 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1984.
- Sasaki, N. and Nakata, K. , “Effect of Fuel Components on Engine Abnormal Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1276 , 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1276.
- He, Y., Liu, Z., Stahl, I., Zhang, G. et al. , “Comparison of Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behaviors on a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine with Various Fuels and Lubricants,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2291 , 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2291.
- Mayer, M., Hofmann, P., Geringer, B., Williams, J. et al. , “Influence of Different Fuel Properties and Gasoline - Ethanol Blends on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines 9(2):841-848, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0719.
- Aikawa, K., Sakurai, T., and Jetter, J. , “Development of a Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):610-622, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2115.
- Moriya, H. , “Fuel Property Influence on Exhaust Emissions,” presentation at SAE-China Congress & Exhibition, Sep. 2016.
- Okada, Y., Shigeki, E., Yaguchi, H., Izumi, Y. et al. , “Study of LSPI Occurring Mechanism from Deposit,” JSAE 20145633.
- Endoh, M. and Doi, A. , “Effect of Pressure Change on Thermal Decomposition Process of MnCO3 ,” The Bulletin of the Okayama University of Science 9:107-113, 1973.
- Si, W., Wang, Y., Li, K., and Li, J. , “A High-Efficiency γ-MnO2-like Catalyst in Toluene Combustion,” Chem. Comm. 51(81):14977-14980, 2015, doi:10.1039/c5cc04528b.