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Pre-Shaping Bursty Transmissions under IEEE802.1Q as a Simple and Efficient QoS Mechanism
ISSN: 1946-4614, e-ISSN: 1946-4622
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Navet, N., Migge, J., Villanueva, J., and Boyer, M., "Pre-Shaping Bursty Transmissions under IEEE802.1Q as a Simple and Efficient QoS Mechanism," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars – Electron. Electr. Syst. 11(3):197-204, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0756.
The automotive industry is swiftly moving toward Ethernet as the high-speed communication network for in-vehicle communication. There is nonetheless a need for protocols that go beyond what standard Ethernet has to offer in order to provide additional quality of service (QoS) to demanding applications such as advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) or audio/video streaming. The main protocols currently considered for that purpose are IEEE802.1Q, audio video bridging (AVB) with the credit-based shaper (CBS) mechanism (IEEE802.1Qav), and time-sensitive networking (TSN) with its time-aware shaper (TAS) (IEEE802.1Qbv). AVB/CBS and TSN/TAS both provide efficient QoS mechanisms, and they can be used in a combined manner, which offers many possibilities to the designer. Their use however requires dedicated hardware and software components and clock synchronization in the case of TAS. Previous studies have also shown that the efficiency of these protocols depends much on the application at hand and the value of the configuration parameters. In this work, we explore the use of “pre-shaping” strategies under IEEE802.1Q for bursty traffic such as audio/video streams as a simple and efficient alternative to AVB/CBS and TSN/TAS. Pre-shaping means inserting on the sender side “well-chosen” pauses between successive frames of a transmission burst (e.g., as it happens when sending a camera frame), all the other characteristics of the traffic remaining unchanged. We show on an automotive case study how the use of pre-shaping for audio/video streams leads to a drastic reduction of the communication latencies for the best-effort streams while enabling meeting the timing constraints for the rest of the traffic. We then discuss the limitations of the pre-shaping mechanism and what is needed to facilitate its adoption.