This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Influence of Driver Position and Seat Design on Thoracolumbar Loading During Frontal Impacts
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Previous research has detailed contributing factors to thoracolumbar compression fracture injury risk during frontal impacts in motorsport drivers utilizing a nearly recumbent driving position (Katsuhara, Takahira, Hayashi, Kitagawa, & Yasuki, 2017; Trammell, Weaver, & Bock, 2006; Troxel, Melvin, Begeman, & Grimm, 2006). This type of injury is very rare for upright seated motorsport drivers. While numerous improvements have been made to the driver restraint system used in the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Incorporated (NASCAR®) since 2000, two instances of lumbar compression fractures have occurred during frontal impacts. Through the use of computation modeling, this study explores the influence of initial driver position and seat ramp design on thoracolumbar loading during frontal impacts.
Quasi-static component testing, dynamic component testing, an instrumented driver fit check, a seat ramp angle survey, and sled testing were conducted to provide computational finite element (FE) model inputs and serve as validation tests. Upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted with a driver to visualize vertebral body locations with respect to the driver seat. FE modeling was conducted with the 50th percentile male Hybrid III FE model (Humanetics, Plymouth, MI) to validate a motorsport restraint system model. Sprague and Geers analysis was used to quantify and identify the optimally tuned FE model parameters. A 3-factor latin hypercube (LHD) sample space was created for acceleration magnitude and the principal direction of force (PDOF) about the Z-axis and about the Y-axis across 20 simulations. The Toyota Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) was then used in four unique seat ramp angles in both slouched and upright postures, for a total of eight THUMS seated configurations. All eight configurations were subjected to the 20 variable values of the LHD sample space for a total of 160 simulations.
A FE motorsport restraint system model was developed and validated against empirical component and sled test data. The THUMS was used in the validated motorsport restraint system. As seat ramp angles (SRA) increased, peak axial compressive force of T12, L1 and L2 decreased. For each SRA, the slouched THUMS initial position (TIP), which positioned the ischial tuberosities closer to the seat ramp, produced lower peak axial compressive forces. The peak XY resultant bending moment of T12 and L1 also decreased as SRA increased.
CitationPatalak, J., Davis, M., Gaewsky, J., Stitzel, J. et al., "Influence of Driver Position and Seat Design on Thoracolumbar Loading During Frontal Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0544, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0544.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
- Begeman, P.C., King, A.I., and Prasad, P. , “Spinal Loads Resulting from -Gx Acceleration,” SAE International, 1973, doi:10.4271/730977.
- Golman, A.J., Danelson, K.A., and Stitzel, J.D. , “Robust Human Body Model Injury Prediction in Simulated Side Impact Crashes,” Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 19(7):1-16, 2015, doi:10.1080/10255842.2015.1056523.
- Gramling, H. and Hubbard, R. , “Sensitivity Analysis of the HANS Head and Neck Support,” Society of Automotive Engineers - Technical Paper Series 724:1-11, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-3541.
- Jones, D.A., Gaewsky, J.P., Kelley, M.E., Weaver, A.A. et al. , “Lumbar Vertebrae Fracture Injury Risk in Finite Element Reconstruction of CIREN and NASS Frontal Motor Vehicle Crashes,” Traffic Injury Prevention 17 (Suppl 1(S1)):109-115, 2016, doi:10.1080/15389588.2016.1195495.
- Katsuhara, T., Takahira, Y., Hayashi, S., Kitagawa, Y., and Yasuki, T. , “Analysis of Driver Kinematics and Lower Thoracic Spine Injury in World Endurance Championship Race Cars during Frontal Impacts,” SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety., 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1432.
- Kaufman, R.P., Ching, R.P., Willis, M.M., Mack, C.D. et al. , “Burst Fractures of the Lumbar Spine in Frontal Crashes,” Accident Analysis and Prevention 59:153-163, 2013, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2013.05.023.
- Miller, L., Gaewsky, J., Weaver, A., Stitzel, J., & White, N. 2016. Regional Level Crash Induced Injury Metrics Implemented within THUMS v4.01, 1-21. doi:10.4271/2016-01-1489.Copyright.
- Müller, C.W., Otte, D., Decker, S., Stübig, T. et al. , “Vertebral Fractures in Motor Vehicle Accidents-a Medical and Technical Analysis of 33,015 Injured Front-Seat Occupants,” Accident Analysis and Prevention 66:15-19, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.01.003.
- Patalak, J., Gideon, T., and Melvin, J. , “Examination of a Properly Restrained Motorsport Occupant,” SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety. 1(2), 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0804.
- Patalak, J., Gideon, T., Melvin, J.W., and Rains, M. , “Improved Seat Belt Restraint Geometry for Frontal, Frontal Oblique and Rollover Incidents,” SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety. 3(2), 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0740.
- Patalak, J. P., Gideon, T., Emerson, D. K., & Low, G. 2017. US9580042B2. United States Patent.
- Patalak, J.P. and Melvin, J.W. , “Stock Car Racing Driver Restraint - Development and Implementation of Seat Performance Specification,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars Electron. Electr. Syst. 1(1), 2009.
- Patalak, J.P. and Stitzel, J.D. , “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Toe Board Energy-Absorbing Material for Foot, Ankle, and Lower Leg Injury Reduction,” Traffic Injury Prevention, 2017, doi:10.1080/15389588.2017.1354128.
- Pintar, F.A., Yoganandan, N.A., Maiman, D.J., Scarboro, M., and Rudd, R.W. , “Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in Frontal Impact Crashes,” Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine 56:277-283, 2012.
- Rao, R.D., Berry, C.A., Yoganandan, N., and Agarwal, A. , “Occupant and Crash Characteristics in Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Injuries Resulting from Motor Vehicle Collisions,” The Spine Journal 14(10):2355-2365, 2014, doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2014.01.038.
- SAE . SAE J211-1 Instrumentation for Impact Test - Part 1 - Electronic Instrumentation 2014.
- SFI . SFI Foundation, Inc. Specification 45.2 Impact Padding, Pub. L. No. 45.2 2013. SFI Foundation Inc. Retrieved from http://www.sfifoundation.com/wp-content/pdfs/specs/Spec_45.2_032713.pdf.
- SFI . SFI Foundation, Inc. Specification 38.1 Head and Neck Restraint Systems, Pub. L. No. 38.1 2015a. SFI Foundation Inc. Retrieved from http://www.sfifoundation.com/wp-content/pdfs/specs/Spec_38.1_031615.pdf.
- SFI . SFI Foundation, Inc. Specification 39.1 Stock Car Type Racing Seat (Custom), Pub. L. No. 39.1 (2015b). SFI Foundation Inc. Retrieved from http://www.sfifoundation.com/wp-content/pdfs/specs/Spec_39.1_031615.pdf.
- Somers, J. T., Granderson, B., Melvin, J. W., Tabiei, A., Lawrence, C., Feiveson, A., … Patalak, J. 2011. Development of Head Injury Assessment Reference Values Based on NASA Injury Modeling. Stapp Car Crash Journal, 55(Nov), 49-74.
- Sprague, M.A. and Geers, T.L. , “A Spectral-Element Method for Modelling Cavitation in Transient Fluid-Structure Interaction,” International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 60(15):2467-2499, 2004, doi:10.1002/nme.1054.
- Stocki, R. 2005. A Method to Improve Design Reliability Using Optimal Latin Hypercube Sampling. Computer Assisted Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, (Jan).
- Trammell, T.R., Weaver, C.S., and Bock, H. , “Spine Fractures in Open Cockpit Open Wheel Race Car Drivers,” SAE Technical Paper Series, 2006-01-3630 , 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3630.
- Troxel, T.B., Melvin, J.W., Begeman, P.C., and Grimm, M.J. , “Biomechanical Investigation of Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in Indianapolis-Type Racing Car Drivers during Frontal Impacts,” SAE International 724:776-0790, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3633.
- Yoganandan, N., Arun, M.W.J., Stemper, B.D., Pintar, F.A., and Maiman, D.J. , “Biomechanics of Human Thoracolumbar Spinal Column Trauma from Vertical Impact Loading,” Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine 57:155-166, 2013.