This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Contrary Effects of Nozzle Length on Spray Primary Breakup under Subcooled and Superheated Conditions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2018 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Nozzle length has been proven influencing fuel spray characteristics, and subsequently fuel-air mixing and combustion processes. However, almost all existing related studies are conducted when fuel is subcooled, of which fuel evaporation is extremely weak, especially at the near nozzle region. In addition, injector tip can be heated to very high temperature in SIDI engines, which would trigger flash boiling fuel spray. Therefore, in this study, effect of nozzle length on spray characteristics is investigated under superheated conditions. Three single-hole injectors with different nozzle length were studied. High speed backlit imaging technique was applied to acquire magnified near nozzle spray images based on an optical accessible constant volume chamber. Fuel pressure was maintained at 15 MPa, and n-hexane was chosen as test fuel. Fuel temperature ranged from 25 °C to 85 °C, and ambient pressure ranged from 20 kPa to 200 kPa, which provided a wide range of subcooled and superheated conditions. Results show that nozzle length has contrary effect on spray primary breakup process under subcooled and superheated conditions. Longer nozzle led to narrower near nozzle spray under subcooled conditions due to stronger restriction effect of nozzle wall. However, longer nozzle could result in stronger in-nozzle fuel evaporation and more in-nozzle bubbles near the nozzle exit under superheated conditions, which led to faster and stronger fuel atomization and evaporation processes, and thus wider fuel spray.
CitationWu, S., Xu, M., Yang, S., and Yin, P., "Contrary Effects of Nozzle Length on Spray Primary Breakup under Subcooled and Superheated Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0302, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0302.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Lefebvre, A.H., “Atomization and Sprays,” (New York, Hemisphere Publishing Cooperation, 1988).
- Baumgarten, C., “Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines,” (Springer Science & Business Media, 2006).
- Li, T.,Xu, M.,Wu, S.,Xu, Q., andHung, D.L.S., “Influence of the Injector Configuration on the Spray Evaporation Characteristics under Superheated Conditions,” SAE Technical Papers 2015-01-1900, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1900.
- Su, T.F.,Chang, C.T.,Reitz, R.D.,Farrell, P.V. et al., “Effects of injection pressure and nozzle geometry on spray SMD and D.I. Emissions,” SAE Technical Papers 952360, 1995, doi:10.4271/952360.
- Pierpont, D.A. andReitz, R.D., “Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on D.I. Diesel Emissions and Performance,” SAE Technical Papers 950604, 1995, doi:10.4271/950604.
- Yao, C.,Geng, P.,Yin, Z.,Hu, J. et al., “Impacts of Nozzle Geometry on Spray Combustion of High Pressure Common Rail Injectors in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber,” Fuel 179:235-245, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2016.03.097.
- Zeng, W.,Xu, M.,Zhang, G.,Zhang, Y., andCleary, D.J., “Atomization and Vaporization for Flash-Boiling Multi-Hole Sprays with Alcohol Fuels,” Fuel 95:287-297, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2011.08.048.
- Xu, M.,Zhang, Y.,Zeng, W.,Zhang, G.M., andZhang, M., “Flash Boiling: Easy and Better Way to Generate Ideal Sprays than the High Injection Pressure,” SAE Technical Paper, 2013-01-1614, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1614.
- Senda, J.,Yamaguchi, M.,Tsukamoto, T., andFujimoto, H., “Characteristics of Spray Injected from Gasoline Injector,” JSME International Journal Series B Fluids and Thermal Engineering 37(4):931-936, 1994, doi:10.1299/jsmeb.37.931.
- Yang, J.,Dong, X.,Wu, Q., andXu, M., “Influence of Flash Boiling Spray on the Combustion Characteristics of a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Optical Engine under Cold Start,” Combustion and Flame 188:66-76, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2017.09.019.
- Wu, S.,Pan, H.,Xu, M.,Hung, D., andLi, T., “Investigation of Rapid Atomization and Collapse of Liquid Fuel Spray under Superheated Conditions,” Atomization and Sprays 26(12):1361-1384, 2016, doi:10.1615/AtomizSpr.2016014231.
- Park, B.S. andLee, S.Y., “An Experimental Investigation of the Flash Atomization Mechanism,” Atomization and Sprays 4:159-179, 1994, doi:10.1615/AtomizSpr.v4.i2.30.
- Wu, S.,Xu, M.,Hung, D.L., andPan, H., “In-Nozzle Flow Investigation of Flash Boiling Fuel Sprays,” Applied Thermal Engineering 117:644-651, 2017, doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.12.105.
- Wu, S.,Xu, M.,Hung, D.L., andPan, H., “Effects of Nozzle Configuration on Internal Flow and Primary Jet Breakup of Flash Boiling Fuel Sprays,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 110:730-738, 2017, doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.03.073.
- Moulai, M.,Grover, R.,Parrish, S., andSchmidt, D., “Internal and near-Nozzle Flow in a Multi-Hole Gasoline Injector under Flashing and Non-flashing Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper, 2015-01-0944, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0944.
- Saha, K.,Som, S.,Battistoni, M.,Li, Y. et al., “Modeling of Internal and Near-Nozzle Flow for a Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injector,” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 138(5):052208, 2016, doi:10.1115/1.4032979.
- Saha, K.,Battistoni, M., andSom, S., “Modeling of Flash Boiling Phenomenon in Internal and Near-Nozzle Flow of Fuel Injectors,” . In: Droplets and Sprays. (Springer, Singapore, 2018), 167-181, doi:10.1007/978-981-10-7449-3_7.
- Engine Combustion Network,‘Spray G’ Operating Condition,” (Livermore, CA, Sandia National Laboratory, 2014).
- Zhang, G.,Xu, M.,Li, T.,Grover, R.O.,Kuo, T. andHe, Y., “A Study of Near-Field Spray Structure under Superheated Conditions of a Gasoline Fuel Spray,” 26th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems-Americas, , Portland OR, USA, 2014.
- Naber, J. andSiebers, D.L., “Effects of Gas Density and Vaporization on Penetration and Dispersion of Diesel Sprays,” SAE Technical Paper 960034, 1996, doi:10.4271/960034.