This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Association of Impact Velocity with Serious-Injury and Fatality Risks to Cyclists in Commercial Truck-Cyclist Accidents
Published November 13, 2017 by The Stapp Association in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck–cyclist collision impact velocity and the serious-injury and fatality risks to cyclists, and to investigate the effects of road type and driving scenario on the frequency of cyclist fatalities due to collisions with vehicles. We used micro and macro truck–cyclist collision data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤40 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤30 km/h. The fatality risk was 6% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, the fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class and impact velocity. The results revealed that a 10 km/h reduction in impact velocities could mitigate the severity of cyclist injuries at impact velocities ≥30 km/h for all five vehicle types. The frequency of cyclist fatalities at intersections with traffic signals involving heavy-duty trucks was significantly higher during daytime than that at nighttime. Fatalities involving vehicles making a left turn generally increased with vehicle weight. The frequency of cyclist fatalities involving vehicles making a left turn was the largest for heavy-duty trucks both during daytime (67.6%) and at nighttime (52.3%).
CitationMatsui, Y., Oikawa, S., Sorimachi, K., Imanishi, A. et al., "Association of Impact Velocity with Serious-Injury and Fatality Risks to Cyclists in Commercial Truck-Cyclist Accidents," SAE Technical Paper 2017-22-0013, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-22-0013.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 8]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 9]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 10]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 11]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 12]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 13]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 14]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 15]|
- Anderson, R.W.G., McLean, A.J., Farmer, M.J.B., Lee, B.H., and Brooks, C.G. (1997) Vehicle travel speeds and the incidence of fatal pedestrian crashes. Accident Analysis& Prevention 29: 667-674.
- Attewell, R.G., Glase, K., McFadden, M. (2001) Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis. Accident Analysis& Prevention 33: 345-352.
- Badea-Romero, A., Lenard, J. (2013) Source of head injury for pedestrians and pedal cyclists: Striking vehicle or road?. Accident Analysis & Prevention 50: 1140-1150.
- Bambach, M.R., Mitchell, R.J., Grzebieta, R.H., Olivier, J. (2013) The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: a case– control study. Accident Analysis & Prevention 53: 78–88.
- Boufous, S., de Rome, L., Senserrick, T., Ivers, R. (2012) Risk factors for severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes in Victoria, Australia. Accident Analysis & Prevention 49: 404-409.
- Camp, O.M.G.C., Monfort, S., Uittenbogaard, J., Welten, J.C. (2016) Cyclist target and test setup for the evaluation of cyclist-autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems, FISITA 2016 World Automotive Congress, numberF2016-APSD-008 Busan, Korea.
- Davis, G. (2001) Relating severity of pedestrian injury to impact speed in vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Transportation Research Record 1773: 108-113.
- European commission (EC) (2017) Status of the review of the general safety and pedestrian safety regulations, https://www2.unece.org/wiki/display/trans/VRU-Proxi+1st+session
- European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) (2015) Making walking and cycling on Europe's roads safer, PIN Flash report 29.
- Hagel, B.E., Romanow, N.T.R., Enns, N., Williamson, J. (2015) Severe bicycling injury risk factors in children and adolescents; A case-control study. Accident Analysis & Prevention 78: 165- 172.
- Heesch, K.C., Garrard J., Sahlqvist S. (2011) Incidence, severity and correlates of bicycling injuries in a sample of cyclists in Queensland, Australia. Accident Analysis & Prevention 43: 2085-2092.
- Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan (ITARDA) (2011) ITARDA information No. 88 (in Japanese) Tokyo.
- Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan (ITARDA) (2014) Annual traffic accident report in 2013 (in Japanese) Tokyo.
- Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan (ITARDA) (2017) Annual traffic accident report in 2016 (in Japanese) Tokyo.
- Japan Cabinet Office (2016) Traffic safety master plan for a zero-traffic-accident society. Meeting on Central Traffic Safety Measures (in Japanese).
- Kong, C., and Yang, J. (2010) Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China. Accident Analysis & Prevention 42 (4): 987-993.
- Matsui, Y . (2011) Improvement of accelerometers for pedestrian headform impactors in testing following Japanese vehicle safety regulations. International Journal of Vehicle Safety 5(4): 307-318.
- Matsui, Y., Han, Y., and Mizuno, K. (2011) Performance of collision damage mitigation braking systems and their effects on human injury in the event of car-to-pedestrian accidents. Stapp Car Crash Journal 55: 461-478.
- Matsui, Y., Oikawa, S., and Ando, K. (2013a), Risks of pedestrian serious injuries and fatalities associated with impact velocities of cars in car- versus-pedestrian accidents in Japan. Stapp Car Crash Journal 57: 201-217.
- Matsui, Y., Doi, T., Oikawa, S., and Ando, K. (2013b) Features of fatal pedestrian injuries in vehicle-to-pedestrian accidents in Japan. SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety 1 (2): 297-308.
- Matsui, Y. and Oikawa, S. (2015) Risks of serious injuries and fatalities of cyclists associated with impact velocities of cars in car-cyclist accidents in Japan. Stapp Car Crash Journal 59: 385-400.
- Matsui, Y., Oikawa, S., Sorimachi, K., Imanishi, A., and Fujimura,T. (2016a) Association of impact velocity with risks of serious injuries and fatalities to pedestrians in commercial truck–pedestrian accidents. Stapp Car Crash Journal 60: 165-182.
- Matsui, Y., Oikawa, S., and Hitosugi, M. (2016b) Analysis of car-to-bicycle approach patterns for developing active safety devices. Traffic Injury Prevention 17 (4): 434-439.
- Mertz, H.J. (2000) Injury risk assessments based on dummy responses. Accidental Injury, Springer-Verlag: 89-102.
- National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (2016) Chronological science tables (in Japanese).
- Oh, C., Kang, Y., Youn, Y., and Konosu, A. (2008a) Development of probabilistic pedestrian fatality model for characterizing pedestrian-vehicle collisions. International Journal of Automotive Technology 9 (2): 191-196.
- Oh, C., Kang, Y., and Kim, W. (2008b) Assessing the safety benefits of an advanced vehicular technology for protecting pedestrians. Accident Analysis & Prevention 40 (3): 935-942.
- Oikawa, S., Hirose, T., Aomura, S., and Matsui, Y. (2016) Traffic accidents involving cyclists identifying causal factors using questionnaire survey, traffic accident data, and real-world observation. Stapp Car Crash Journal 60: 183-198.
- Otte, D., Jansch, M., Haasper, C. (2012) Injury protection and accident causation parameters for vulnerable road users based on German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS. Accident Analysis & Prevention 44: 149-153.
- Robinson T. Knight I., Martin P., Seidl M., Manning J., and Eyers V. (2016) Definition of direct vision standards for heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) Client project report RPN3680 Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) http://content.tfl.gov.uk/assessing-drect-vision-in-hgvs-technical.pdf
- Rosen, E., and Sander, U. (2009) Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed. Accident Analysis & Prevention 41: 536-542.
- Scheiman, S., Moghaddas, H.S., Bjornstig, U., Bylund, P.O., Saveman B.I. (2010) Bicycle injury events among older adults in Northern Sweden: A 10 -year population based study. Accident Analysis& Prevention 42: 758-763.
- Scholten A.C., Polinder, S., Panneman, M.J.M., Beeck E.F., Haagsma, J.A. (2015) Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands. Accident Analysis & Prevention 81: 51-60.
- Stone, M., Broughton, J. (2003) Getting off your bike: cycling accidents in Great Britain in 1990– 1999. Accident Analysis & Prevention 35: 549-556.
- Zeiniger, P., Gail, J., and Schreck B. (2015) Development of a test procedure for driver assist systems addressing accidents between right turning trucks and straight driving cyclists. 24th ESV conference, Gothenburg, Sweden. https://www-esv.nhtsa.dot.gov/Proceedings/24/isv7/main.htm