This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Effects of Human Adaptation and Trust on Shared Control for Driver-Automation Cooperative Driving
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 23, 2017 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Vehicle automation is a fundamental approach to reduce traffic accidents and driver workload. However, there is a notable risk of pushing human drivers out of the control loop before automation technology fully matures. Cooperative driving (or vehicle co-piloting) is a novel paradigm which is defined as the vehicle being jointly navigated by a human driver and an automatic controller through shared control technology. Indirect shared control is an emerging shared control method, which is able to realize cooperative driving through input complementation instead of haptic guidance. In this paper we first establish an indirect shared control method, in which the driver’s commanded input and the controller’s desired input are balanced with a weighted summation. Thereafter, we propose a predictive model to capture driver adaptation and trust in indirect shared control. In this model, adaptation is interpreted as drivers integrating the controller’s input transformation strategy into their predictor, and trust is modeled as a change of their cost function. Lastly, we perform simulations in a standard double lane change maneuver to evaluate the effects of driver adaptation and trust on the indirect shared control performance. The major findings of this study include: 1) Driver adaptation and trust are directly related to the control effort, but do not significantly affect the vehicle stability because the driver’s steering input is filtered by the controller; 2) Driver’s control effort is more sensitive to the trust level, with the simulation results showing that distrust would largely increase the driver’s steering effort even if he has well adapted to the controller; 3) A system failure (the controller suddenly hands over the control authority to the driver without notification) would endanger the vehicle because the driver cannot switch back his internal model and adjust his control objectives immediately.
CitationLi, R., Li, S., Gao, H., Li, K. et al., "Effects of Human Adaptation and Trust on Shared Control for Driver-Automation Cooperative Driving," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1987, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1987.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Golson, J., “Tesla Driver Killed in Crash with Autopilot Active, NHTSA Investigating,” https://www.theverge.com/2016/6/30/12072408/tesla-autopilot-car-crash-death-autonomous-model-s, accessed May. 2017.
- CNBC, “Uber Suspends Self-Driving Car Program after Arizona Crash,” http://www.cnbc.com/2017/03/26/uber-self-driving-car-arizona-crash-suspended.html, accessed May 2017.
- Khosravani, S., Khajepour, A., Fidan, B., Chen, S. K., and Litkouhi, B., “Development of a Robust Vehicle Control with Driver in the Loop,” in 2014 American Control Conference, 2014, pp. 3482-3487.
- Saleh, L., Chevrel, P., Claveau, F., Lafay, J.-F., and Mars, F., “Shared Steering Control Between a Driver and an Automation: Stability in the Presence of Driver Behavior Uncertainty,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 974-983, Jun. 2013.
- Nguyen, A. T., Sentouh, C., and Popieul, J. C., “Driver-Automation Cooperative Approach for Shared Steering Control Under Multiple System Constraints: Design and Experiments,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 3819-3830, May 2017.
- Abbink, D. A., Mulder, M., and Boer, E. R., “Haptic Shared Control: Smoothly Shifting Control Authority?” Cognition, Technology & Work, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 19-28, Mar. 2012.
- Li, R., Li, Y., Li, S. E., Burdet, E. et al., “Indirect Shared Control of Highly Automated Vehicles for Cooperative Driving between Driver and Automation,” arXiv:1704.00866 [cs], Apr. 2017.
- Yih, P. and Gerdes, J. C., “Modification of Vehicle Handling Characteristics via Steer-by-Wire,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 965-976, Nov. 2005.
- Omae, M., Fujioka, T., Hashimoto, N., and Shimizu, H., “The Application of RTK-GPS and Steer-by-Wire Technology to the Automatic Driving of Vehicles and an Evaluation of Driver Behavior,” IATSS Research, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 29-38, 2006.
- Brandt, T., Sattel, T., and Bohm, M., “Combining Haptic Human-Machine Interaction with Predictive Path Planning for Lane-Keeping and Collision Avoidance Systems,” in 2007 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, 2007, pp. 582-587.
- Anderson, S. J., Karumanchi, S. B., Iagnemma, K., and Walker, J. M., “The Intelligent Copilot: A Constraint-Based Approach to Shared-Adaptive Control of Ground Vehicles,” IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 45-54, 2013.
- Shia, V. A., Gao, Y., Vasudevan, R., Campbell, K. D. et al., “Semiautonomous Vehicular Control Using Driver Modeling,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 2696-2709, Dec. 2014.
- Erlien, S. M., Fujita, S., and Gerdes, J. C., “Shared Steering Control Using Safe Envelopes for Obstacle Avoidance and Vehicle Stability,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 441-451, Feb. 2016.
- Mars, F., Deroo, M., and Charron, C., “Driver Adaptation to haptic shared control of the steering wheel,” in Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, 2014, pp. 1505-1509.
- Koo, J., Kwac, J., Ju, W., Steinert, M. et al., “Why Did My Car Just Do That? Explaining Semi-Autonomous Driving Actions to Improve Driver Understanding, Trust, and Performance,” International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 269-275, Nov. 2015.
- Inagaki, T. and Itoh, M., “Human's Overtrust in and Overreliance on Advanced Driver Assistance Systems: A Theoretical Framework,” International Journal of Vehicular Technology, vol. 2013, ID 951762, Apr. 2013.
- Cole, D. J., Pick, A. J., and Odhams, A. M. C., “Predictive and Linear Quadratic Methods for Potential Application to Modelling Driver Steering Control,” Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 259-284, Mar. 2006.
- Mars, F., Deroo, M., and Hoc, J.-M., “Analysis of Human-Machine Cooperation When Driving with Different Degrees of Haptic Shared Control,” IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 324-333, Jul. 2014.
- Na, X. and Cole, D. J., “Game-Theoretic Modeling of the Steering Interaction Between a Human Driver and a Vehicle Collision Avoidance Controller,” IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 25-38, Feb. 2015.
- MacAdam, C. C., “Application of an Optimal Preview Control for Simulation of Closed-Loop Automobile Driving,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 393-399, Jun. 1981.
- MacAdam, C. C., “Understanding and Modeling the Human Driver,” Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 40, no. 1-3, pp. 101-134, Aug. 2003.
- Lofberg, J., “YALMIP : A Toolbox for Modeling and Optimization in MATLAB,” in 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37508), 2004, pp. 284-289.
- ISO/DIS 3888-1, “Passenger Cars -- Test Track for a Severe Lane-Change Manoeuvre -- Part 1: Double lane-change.”