This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Effects of Lubricating Oil Metallic Content on Morphology, Nanostructure and Graphitization Degree of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 28, 2017 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
In this paper, the influences of metallic content of lubricating oils on diesel particles were investigated. Three lubricating oils with different levels of metallic content were used in a 2.22 Liter, two cylinders, four stroke, and direct injection diesel engine. 4.0 wt. % and 8 wt. % antioxidant and corrosion inhibitor (T202) were added into baseline lubricating oil to improve the performance respectively. Primary particle diameter distributions and particle nanostructure were compared and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope. The graphitization degrees of diesel particles from different lubricating oils were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the metallic content increases the primary particles diameter at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm. The primary particles diameter ranges from 5 nm to 65 nm and the distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution. Besides, particles from high metallic content lubricating oils show same chain-like and branch-like cluster and core-shell nanostructure with particles from the baseline lubricating oil. The layer fringe length and tortuosity were used to quantify the particle nanostructure. The analysis results of particle nanostructure show that metallic content leads to shorter fringes with higher tortuosity. As to the graphitization degree, four curves (D1, D3, D4, G) were used to fit the Raman spectrum curves. And the area ratio of D1 band to G band increased when the high metallic content lubricating oil was used at 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm, which means that metallic content leads to the disordered particle structure.
|Ground Vehicle Standard||Power Cylinder Oil Consumption: Methods of Measurements|
|Technical Paper||Instantaneous Unburned Oil Consumption Measurement in a Diesel Engine Using SO2 Tracer Technique|
|Technical Paper||The Role of Lubricating Oil in Diesel Particulate and Particulate PAH Emissions|
CitationWang, Y., Liang, X., Wang, Y., Sun, X. et al., "Effects of Lubricating Oil Metallic Content on Morphology, Nanostructure and Graphitization Degree of Diesel Engine Exhaust Particles," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1009, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1009.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
- Pope CA, Hansen M L, Long R W, Nielsen K R, Eatough N L, Wilson W E, Eatough D G. “Ambient particulate air pollution, heart rate variability, and blood markers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects.” Environmental Health Perspectives 112(3):339-45, 2004. doi: 10.1289/ehp.6588.
- Dabass A, Talbott E O, Venkat A, Rager J, Marsh G M, Sharma R K, Holguin F. “Association of exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in adult NHANES participants (2001-2008).” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 219(3):301-310, 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.12.002.
- Chen R, Hu B, Liu Y, Xu J, Yang G, Xu D, Chen C. “The role of ultrafine particles on adverse health effects of air pollution.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 1860(12):2844-2855, 2016. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2013.850127.
- Agarwal A K, Srivastava D K, Dhar A, Maurya R K, Shukla P C, Singh A P. “Effect of fuel injection timing and pressure on combustion, emissions and performance characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine.” Fuel 111(3):374-383, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.03.016.
- Agarwal A.K. “Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines.” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 33(3):233-271, 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.pecs.2006.08.003.
- Pakbin P., Ning Z, Schauer J J, Sioutas C. “Characterization of particle bound organic carbon from diesel vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies.” Environmental Science and Technology, 43(13):4679-86, 2009. doi: 10.1021/es8030825.
- Vander Wal R.L., Tomasek A J. “Soot oxidation : dependence upon initial nanostructure.” Combustion and Flame, 134(1-2):1-9, 2003. doi: 10.1016/S0010-2180(03)00084-1.
- Yehliu K, Vander Wal R L, Armas O, Boehman A L. “Impact of fuel formulation on the nanostructure and reactivity of diesel soot.” Combustion and Flame159(12):3597-3606, 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2012.07.004
- Froelund, K., Owens, E., Frame, E., Buckingham, J. et al., "Impact of Lubricant Oil on Regulated Emissions of a Light-Duty Mercedes-Benz OM611 CIDI-Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1901, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-1901.
- Lee D., Miller A, Kittelson D, Zachariah M R. ”Characterization of metal-bearing diesel nanoparticles using single-particle mass spectrometry.” Journal of Aerosol Science, 37(1), 88-110, 2006. doi: 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2005.04.006
- Miller A, Ahlstrand G, Kittelson D, Zachariah M. “The fate of metal (Fe) during diesel combustion: morphology, chemistry, and formation pathways of nanoparticles.” Combustion and Flame, 149(1-2), 129-143, 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2006.12.005
- Sappok, A., Beauboeuf, D., and Wong, V., "A Novel Accelerated Aging System to Study Lubricant Additive Effects on Diesel Aftertreatment System Degradation," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 1(1):813-827, 2009, doi:10.4271/2008-01-1549.
- Dong L, Shu G, Liang X. “Effect of lubricating oil on the particle size distribution and total number concentration in a diesel engine.” Fuel Processing Technology, 109(7):78-83, 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2012.09.040
- Zhu J, Lee K O, Yozgatligil A, Choi M Y. “Effects of engine operating conditions on morphology, microstructure, and fractal geometry of light-duty diesel engine particulates.” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 30(2):2781-2789, 2005. doi: 10.1016/j.proci.2004.08.232
- Wang Y, Liang X, Shu G, Wang X, Bao J K, Liu C. “Effect of lubricating oil additive package on the characterization of diesel particles”. Applied Energy, 136:682-691, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.09.054
- Yehliu K, Vander Wal R L, Boehman A L, “Development of an HRTEM image analysis method to quantify carbon nanostructure”, Combustion and Flame, ,158, 1837-1851, 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2011.01.009
- Li Z, Song C, Song J, Lv G, Dong S, Zhao Z. “Evolution of the nanostructure, fractal dimension and size of in-cylinder soot during diesel combustion process.” Combustion and Flame, 158(8):1624-1630, 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2010.12.006
- Yehliu K, Armas O, Vander Wal R L, Boehman A L, “Impact of engine operating modes and combustion phasing on the reactivity of diesel soot.” Combustion and Flame, 160(3) 682-691, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2012.11.003
- Kameya Y., Hanamura K. Kinetic and Raman spectroscopic study on catalytic characteristics of carbon blacks in methane decomposition. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2011, 173(2):627-635, 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.08.017