This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Diesel Spray Impingement on a Flat Plate

Journal Article
ISSN: 1946-3952, e-ISSN: 1946-3960
Published March 28, 2017 by SAE International in United States
An Experimental and Numerical Study of Diesel Spray Impingement on a Flat Plate
Citation: Zhao, L., Torelli, R., Zhu, X., Scarcelli, R. et al., "An Experimental and Numerical Study of Diesel Spray Impingement on a Flat Plate," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 10(2):407-422, 2017,
Language: English


  1. Lee, S.-Y., Turns, S.R., and Santoro, R.J., "Measurements of Soot, Oh, and Pah Concentrations in Turbulent Ethylene/Air Jet Flames," Combustion and Flame 156(12):2264-2275, 2009, doi:
  2. Hofmann, M., Bessler, W.G., Schulz, C., and Jander, H., "Laser-Induced Incandescence for Soot Diagnostics at High Pressures," Applied optics 42(12):2052-2062, 2003,
  3. Johnen, T. and Haug, M., "Spray Formation Observation and Fuel Film Development Measurements in the Intake of a Spark Ignition Engine," SAE Technical Paper 950511, 1995, doi:10.4271/950511.
  4. Stanglmaier, R., Li, J., and Matthews, R., "The Effect of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting Location on the HC Emissions from SI Engines," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0502, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-0502.
  5. Reitz, R.D. and Duraisamy, G., "Review of High Efficiency and Clean Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (Rcci) Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines," Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 46(12-71, 2015, doi:
  6. Akop, M.Z., Zama, Y., Furuhata, T., and Arai, M., "Experimental Investigations on Adhered Fuel and Impinging Diesel Spray Normal to a Wall," Atomization and Sprays 23(3):211-231, 2013, doi:10.1615/AtomizSpr.2013007447.
  7. Akop, M.Z., Zama, Y., Furuhata, T., and Arai, M., "Characteristics of Adhesion of Diesel Fuel on Impingement Disk Wall. Part 1: Effect of Impingement Area and Inclination Angle of Disk," Atomization and Sprays 23(8):725-744, 2013, doi:10.1615/AtomizSpr.2013008113.
  8. Akop, M.Z., Zama, Y., Furuhata, T., and Arai, M., "Characteristics of Adhesion Diesel Fuel on an Impingement Disk Wall Part 2: Droplet Weber Number and Adhered Fuel Mass," Atomization and Sprays 24(8):651-671, 2014, doi:10.1615/AtomizSpr.2014008445.
  9. Sandia National Laboratory ECN website. "Engine Combustion Network"., accessed 2016;
  10. Pope, S., "An Explanation of the Turbulent Round-Jet/Plane-Jet Anomaly," AIAA journal 16(3):279-281, 1978, doi:
  11. Senda, J., Ohnishi, M., Takahashi, T., Fujimoto, H. et al., "Measurement and Modeling on Wall Wetted Fuel Film Profile and Mixture Preparation in Intake Port of SI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0798, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-0798.
  12. Lindgren, R., Block, R., and Denbratt, I., "Development of a Wall Film Thickness Measuring Device," presented at Optical and Laser Diagnostics: Proceedings of the First International Conference London, 16-20 December 2002, 2003.
  13. Panão, M. and Moreira, A., "Visualization and Analysis of Spray Impingement Under Cross-Flow Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2664, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-2664.
  14. Lindagren, R. and Denbratt, I., "Influence of Wall Properties on the Characteristics of a Gasoline Spray After Wall Impingement," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1951, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-1951.
  15. Maligne, D. and Bruneaux, G., "Time-Resolved Fuel Film Thickness Measurement for Direct Injection SI Engines Using Refractive Index Matching," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1215, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-1215.
  16. Zheng, Y., Xie, X., Lai, M.-C., and VanDerWege, B., "Measurement and Simulation of Di Spray Impingements and Film Characteristics," presented at 12th Triennial International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Heidelberg, Germany, 2012.
  17. Montanaro, A., Allocca, L., Meccariello, G., and Lazzaro, M., "Schlieren and Mie Scattering Imaging System to Evaluate Liquid and Vapor Contours of a Gasoline Spray Impacting on a Heated Wall," SAE Technical Paper 2015-24-2473, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-24-2473.
  18. Montorsi, L., Magnusson, A., and Andersson, S., "A Numerical and Experimental Study of Diesel Fuel Sprays Impinging on a Temperature Controlled Wall," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3333, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3333.
  19. Montorsi, L., Magnusson, A., Andersson, S., and Jedrzejowski, S., "Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Wall Film Thickness for Diesel Fuel Sprays Impinging on a Temperature-Controlled Wall," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0486, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0486.
  20. Habchi, C., Foucart, H., and Baritaud, T., "Influence De La Température De Paroi Sur La Préparation Du Mélange Dans Les Moteurs À Essence À Injection Directe," Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Rev. IFP 54(2):211-222, 1999, doi:
  21. Bai, C.X., Rusche, H., and Gosman, A.D., "Modeling of Gasoline Spray Impingement," Atomization and Sprays 12(1-3):1-27, 2002, doi:10.1615/AtomizSpr.v12.i123.10.
  22. Lippert, A., Stanton, D., Reitz, R., Rutland, C. et al., "Investigating the Effect of Spray Targeting and Impingement on Diesel Engine Cold Start," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0269, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0269.
  23. O'Rourke, P. and Amsden, A., "A Spray/Wall Interaction Submodel for the KIVA-3 Wall Film Model," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0271, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0271.
  24. Cole, V., Mehra, D., Lowry, S., and Gray, D., "A Numerical Spray Impingement Model Coupled with a Free Surface Film Model," presented at The Fifth International Symposium on Diagonstics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, Nayoga, July 1-4, 2001.
  25. Zhao, L., Moiz, A., Lee, S., Naber, J. et al., "Investigation of Multi-Hole Impinging Jet High Pressure Spray Characteristics under Gasoline Engine-Like Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0847, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0847.
  26. Zhang, A., Montanaro, A., Allocca, L., Naber, J. et al., "Measurement of Diesel Spray Formation and Combustion upon Different Nozzle Geometry using Hybrid Imaging Technique," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(2):1034-1043, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1410.
  27. Bower, G. and Foster, D., "A Comparison of the Bosch and Zuech Rate of Injection Meters," SAE Technical Paper 910724, 1991, doi:10.4271/910724.
  28. Otsu, N., "A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms," Automatica 11(285-296):23-27, 1975.
  29. Gonzalez, W. and Woods, R.E., Eddins, Digital Image Processing Using Matlab. Third New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2004.
  30. Richards, K.J., Senecal, P. K., and Pomraning, E., "Converge Manual (Version 2.3)", Convergent Science Inc., Madison, WI - USA, 2016.
  31. Senecal, P., Richards, K., Pomraning, E., Yang, T. et al., "A New Parallel Cut-Cell Cartesian CFD Code for Rapid Grid Generation Applied to In-Cylinder Diesel Engine Simulations," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0159, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0159.
  32. Senecal, P.K., Pomraning, E., Richards, K.J., and Som, S., "Grid-Convergent Spray Models for Internal Combustion Engine Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations," Journal of Energy Resources Technology 136(1):012204-012204, 2013, doi:10.1115/1.4024861.
  33. Dukowicz, J.K., "A Particle-Fluid Numerical Model for Liquid Sprays," Journal of Computational Physics 35(2):229-253, 1980, doi:10.1016/0021-9991(80)90087-X.
  34. Reitz, R.D., "Modeling Atomization Processes in High-Pressure Vaporizing Sprays," Atomisation and Spray Technology 3(4):309-337, 1987,
  35. Patterson, M. and Reitz, R., "Modeling the Effects of Fuel Spray Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission," SAE Technical Paper 980131, 1998, doi:10.4271/980131.
  36. Taylor, G., "The Instability of Liquid Surfaces When Accelerated in a Direction Perpendicular to Their Planes. I," presented at Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 1950.
  37. Schmidt, D.P. and Rutland, C., "A New Droplet Collision Algorithm," Journal of Computational Physics 164(1):62-80, 2000, doi:10.1006/jcph.2000.6568.
  38. Post, S.L. and Abraham, J., "Modeling the Outcome of Drop-Drop Collisions in Diesel Sprays," International Journal of Multiphase Flow 28(6):997-1019, 2002, doi:
  39. Amsden, A.A., O'rourke, P., and Butler, T., "Kiva-II: A Computer Program for Chemically Reactive Flows with Sprays". 1989, Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA).
  40. Liu, A.B., Mather, D., and Reitz, R.D., "Modeling the Effects of Drop Drag and Breakup on Fuel Sprays". 1993, DTIC Document.
  41. Launder, B. and Sharma, B., "Application of the Energy-Dissipation Model of Turbulence to the Calculation of Flow near a Spinning Disc," Letters in heat and mass transfer 1(2):131-137, 1974, doi:10.1016/0094-4548(74)90150-7.
  42. Mundo, C., Sommerfeld, M., and Tropea, C., "Droplet-Wall Collisions: Experimental Studies of the Deformation and Breakup Process," International journal of multiphase flow 21(2):151-173, 1995, doi:10.1016/0301-9322(94)00069-V.
  43. Matlab Version 9.0.0. (R2016a), Computer Software, The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA - USA, 2016.

Cited By