This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development and Experimental Validation of a Fast Spray Ignition Model for Diesel Engines Using Insights from CFD Spray Calculations

Journal Article
ISSN: 1946-3952, e-ISSN: 1946-3960
Published March 28, 2017 by SAE International in United States
Development and Experimental Validation of a Fast Spray Ignition Model for Diesel Engines Using Insights from CFD Spray Calculations
Citation: Barro, C., Lucjan, A., Li, Z., Kyrtatos, P. et al., "Development and Experimental Validation of a Fast Spray Ignition Model for Diesel Engines Using Insights from CFD Spray Calculations," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 10(2):304-317, 2017,
Language: English


  1. Aggarwal, S.K., Single droplet ignition: Theoretical analyses and experimental findings. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2014. 45: p. 79-107.
  2. Borghesi, G. and Mastorakos E., Spontaneous ignition of isolated n-heptane droplets at low, intermediate, and high ambient temperatures from a mixture-fraction perspective. Combustion and Flame, 2015. 162(6): p. 2544-2560.
  3. Farouk, T.I. and Dryer F.L., Isolated n-heptane droplet combustion in microgravity: “Cool Flames” - Two-stage combustion. Combustion and Flame, 2014. 161(2): p. 565-581.
  4. Krisman, A., et al., Characterisation of two-stage ignition in diesel engine-relevant thermochemical conditions using direct numerical simulation. Combustion and Flame, 2016. 172: p. 326-341.
  5. Pei, Y., et al., An analysis of the structure of an n-dodecane spray flame using TPDF modelling. Combustion and Flame, 2016. 168: p. 420-435.
  6. Musculus, M.P.B. and Pickett L.M., 17 - In-cylinder spray, mixing, combustion, and pollutant-formation processes in conventional and low-temperature-combustion diesel engines A2 - Zhao, Hua, in Advanced Direct Injection Combustion Engine Technologies and Development. 2010, Woodhead Publishing. p. 644-675.
  7. Singh, S., Musculus M.P.B., and Reitz R.D., Mixing and flame structures inferred from OH-PLIF for conventional and low-temperature diesel engine combustion. Combustion and Flame, 2009. 156(10): p. 1898-1908.
  8. Assanis, D.N., et al., A Predictive Ignition Delay Correlation Under Steady-State and Transient Operation of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2003. 125(2): p. 450-457.
  9. Kadota, T., Hiroyasu H., and Oya H., Spontaneous Ignition Delay of a Fuel Droplet in High Pressure High Temperature Gaseous Environments. Bull. JSME, 1976. 19(130),(No. 536.46): p. 437-445.
  10. Wolfer, H.H., Ignition lag in diesel engines. VDI-Forschungsheft, 1938. 392: p. 621-436.047.
  11. Lakshminarayanan, P.A. and Aghav Y.V., Ignition Delay in a Diesel Engine, in Modelling Diesel Combustion. 2010, Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht. p. 59-78.
  12. Alfazazi, A., et al., Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers. Fuel, 2016. 185: p. 589-598.
  13. Weisser, G., Tanner, F., and Boulouchos, K., "Modeling of Ignition and Early Flame Development with Respect to Large Diesel Engine Simulation," SAE Technical Paper 981451, 1998, doi:10.4271/981451.
  14. Vandersickel, A., et al., The autoignition of practical fuels at HCCI conditions: High-pressure shock tube experiments and phenomenological modeling. Fuel, 2012. 93(1): p. 492-501.
  15. Blomberg, C., Mitakos, D., Bardi, M., Boulouchos, K. et al., "Extension of the Phenomenological 3-Arrhenius Auto-Ignition Model for Six Surrogate Automotive Fuels," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(3):1544-1558, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0755.
  16. Livengood, J.C. and Wu P.C., Correlation of autoignition phenomena in internal combustion engines and rapid compression machines. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 1955. 5(1): p. 347-356.
  17. Klimenko, A.Y. and Bilger R.W., Conditional moment closure for turbulent combustion. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 1999. 25(6): p. 595-687.
  18. Wright, Y.M., et al., Simulations of spray autoignition and flame establishment with two-dimensional CMC. Combust. Flame, 2005. 143(4).
  19. Wright, Y.M., et al., Experiments and Simulations of n-Heptane Spray Auto-Ignition in a Closed Combustion Chamber at Diesel Engine Conditions. Flow Turbul. Combust., 2010. 84(1): p. 49-78.
  20. Bolla, M., et al., Soot Formation Modeling of n-Heptane Sprays Under Diesel Engine Conditions Using the Conditional Moment Closure Approach. Combustion Science and Technology, 2013. 185(5): p. 766-793.
  21. Bolla, M., Gudmundsson, T., Wright, Y., and Boulouchos, K., "Simulations of Diesel Sprays Using the Conditional Moment Closure Model," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(2):1249-1261, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1618.
  22. Bolla, M., et al., Influence of turbulence-chemistry interaction for n-heptane spray combustion under diesel engine conditions with emphasis on soot formation and oxidation. Combustion Theory and Modelling, 2014. 18(2): p. 330-360.
  23. Wright, Y., Boulouchos, K., De Paola, G., and Mastorakos, E., "Multi-dimensional Conditional Moment Closure Modelling Applied to a Heavy-duty Common-rail Diesel Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):714-726, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0717.
  24. De Paola, G., et al., Diesel engine simulations with multi-dimensional conditional moment closure. Combustion Science and Tech., 2008. 180(5): p. 883-899.
  25. O'Brien, E.E. and Jiang T.L., The Conditional Dissipation Rate of an Initially Binary Scalar in Homogeneous Turbulence. Physics of Fluids A - Fluid Dynamics, 1991. 3(12): p. 3121-3123.
  26. Liu, S., et al., Effects of Strain Rate on High-Pressure Nonpremixed n-Heptane Autoignition in Counterflow. Combustion and Flame, 2004. 137: p. 320-339.
  27. Bolla, M., et al., Modeling of soot formation in a heavy-duty diesel engine with conditional moment closure. Fuel, 2014. 117: p. 309-325.
  28. Farrace, D., Bolla, M., Wright, Y., and Boulouchos, K., "Predicting In-Cylinder Soot in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Variations in SOI and TDC Temperature Using the Conditional Moment Closure Model," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(3):1580-1593, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-24-0016.
  29. Pandurangi, S.S., et al., Onset and Progression of Soot in high-pressure n-Dodecane Sprays under Diesel-Engine Conditions. International Journal of Engine Research (Special Edition on Soot), 2016. 1(17).
  30. Pickett, L., Kook, S., and Williams, T., "Visualization of Diesel Spray Penetration, Cool-Flame, Ignition, High-Temperature Combustion, and Soot Formation Using High-Speed Imaging," SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):439-459, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0658.
  31. Naber, J. and Siebers, D., "Effects of Gas Density and Vaporization on Penetration and Dispersion of Diesel Sprays," SAE Technical Paper 960034, 1996, doi:10.4271/960034.
  32. Hiroyasu, H. and Arai, M., "Structures of Fuel Sprays in Diesel Engines," SAE Technical Paper 900475, 1990, doi:10.4271/900475.
  33. Dent, J., "A Basis for the Comparison of Various Experimental Methods for Studying Spray Penetration," SAE Technical Paper 710571, 1971, doi:10.4271/710571.
  34. Mitakos, D., Blomberg, C., Vandersickel, A., Wright, Y. et al., "Ignition Delays of Different Homogeneous Fuel-air Mixtures in a Rapid Compression Expansion Machine and Comparison with a 3-Stage-ignition Model Parameterized on Shock Tube Data," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(4):1934-1952, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2625.
  35. Mitakos, D., Blomberg, C., Wright, Y., Obrecht, P. et al., "Integration of a Cool-Flame Heat Release Rate Model into a 3-Stage Ignition Model for HCCI Applications and Different Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1268, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1268.
  36. Knox, B.W., et al., Combustion Recession after End of Injection in Diesel Sprays. 2015.
  37. Musculus, M.P.B. and Kattke K., Entrainment Waves in Diesel Jets. 2009.
  38. Brückner, C., Kyrtatos, P., and Boulouchos, K., "Extending the NOx Reduction Potential with Miller Valve Timing Using Pilot Fuel Injection on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(4):1838-1850, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2632.
  39. Kyrtatos, P., Brückner C., and Boulouchos K., Cycle-to-cycle variations in diesel engines. Applied Energy, 2016. 171: p. 120-132.
  40. Brückner, C., Kyrtatos P., and Boulouchos K.. Performance of a Heavy-Duty Single Cylinder DI Diesel Engine in PCCI mode with Miller Valve Timing. in CIMAC Congress 2016. 2016. Helsinki, Finland.
  41. Kyrtatos, P., et al., Apparent effects of in-cylinder pressure oscillations and cycle-to-cycle variability on heat release rate and soot concentration under long ignition delay conditions in diesel engines. International Journal of Engine Research, 2014. 15(3): p. 325-337.
  42. Kyrtatos, P., et al. Combination of EGR and Fuel-Water Emulsions for Simultaneous NOx and Soot Reduction in a Medium Speed Diesel Engine. in CIMAC Congress 2016. 2016. Helsinki, Finland.
  43. Kyrtatos, P., et al., Recent developments in the Understanding of the Potential of In-Cylinder NOx Reduction though Extreme Miller Valve Timing. CIMAC Congress 2013, 2013: p. Paper No.225.

Cited By