This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Potential of Ozone to Enable Low Load Operations of a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 28, 2017 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines based on Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (GPPC) showed potential for high efficiency and reduced emissions of NOx and Soot. However, because of the high octane number of gasoline, misfire and unstable combustion dramatically limit low load operating conditions. In previous work, seeding the intake of the engine with ozone showed potential for increasing the fuel reactivity of gasoline. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of ozone to overcome the low load limitations of a GCI engine. Experiments were performed in a single-cylinder light-duty CI engine fueled with 95 RON gasoline. Engine speed was set to 1500 rpm and intake pressure was set to 1 bar in order to investigate typical low load operating conditions. In the first part of the work, the effect of ozone on gasoline autoignition was investigate while the start of the fuel injection varied between 60 CAD and 24 CAD before TDC. Results showed that earlier injection timings improved the promoting effect of ozone on gasoline autoignition mainly because of the extension of the fuel-ozone residence time. Moreover, results showed how the nitrogen monoxide (NO) contained in the residual burn gases can react with O3 molecules before they can decompose releasing the O responsible for the autoignition enhancement. In the second part of the work, results showed that seeding the intake of the engine with of 383 ppm of ozone, allowed to improve the gasoline reactivity and to reduce the intake temperature from 130°C to 40°C at a constant IMEP of 3 bar. Analysis showed that while ozone is employed to reduce the intake temperature, combustion initiated and developed at lower temperature with advantages in term of NOx emissions. Also unburned hydrocarbon HC emission reduced, while CO emission increased. In order to take advantage of the effect of ozone, the injection strategy had to be adapted: a first injection during the intake stroke was necessary to get the promoting effect of ozone while a second injection during compression stroke was employed to induce the fuel stratification necessary for controlling the combustion phasing and to avoid excessive heat release rate.
CitationPinazzi, P. and Foucher, F., "Potential of Ozone to Enable Low Load Operations of a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0746, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0746.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
- Sellnau, M., Moore, W., Sinnamon, J., Hoyer, K. et al., "GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and Low Emissions," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(2):775-790, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0834.
- Manente, V., Zander, C., Johansson, B., Tunestal, P. et al., "An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2198, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2198.
- Kalghatgi, G., Risberg, P., and Ångström, H., "Advantages of Fuels with High Resistance to Auto-ignition in Late-injection, Low-temperature, Compression Ignition Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3385, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3385.
- Ji, C., Dec, J., Dernotte, J., and Cannella, W., "Boosted Premixed-LTGC / HCCI Combustion of EHN-doped Gasoline for Engine Speeds Up to 2400 rpm," SAE Int. J. Engines 9(4):2166-2184, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2295.
- Kalghatgi, G., Risberg, P., and Ångström, H., "Partially Pre-Mixed Auto-Ignition of Gasoline to Attain Low Smoke and Low NOx at High Load in a Compression Ignition Engine and Comparison with a Diesel Fuel," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0006, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-0006.
- Yang Y., Dec J.E., Dronniou N., Sjöberg M., Tailoring HCCI heat-release rates with partial fuel stratification: Comparison of two-stage and single-stage-ignition fuels, Proc. Combust. Inst. 33 (2011) 3047-3055. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2010.06.114.
- Kalghatgi G.T., Developments in internal combustion engines and implications for combustion science and future transport fuels, Proc. Combust. Inst. 35 (2015) 101-115. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2014.10.002.
- Kolodziej, C., Kodavasal, J., Ciatti, S., Som, S. et al., "Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87 AKI Gasoline Down to Idle," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0832, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0832.
- Borgqvist P., The Low Load Limit of Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion ( PPC ) Experiments in a Light Duty Diesel Engine, n.d.
- Benajes J., Molina S., Novella R., Lima D. De, Implementation of the Partially Premixed Combustion concept in a 2-stroke HSDI diesel engine fueled with gasoline, Appl. Energy. 122 (2014) 94-111. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.02.013.
- Hoyer, K., Sellnau, M., Sinnamon, J., and Husted, H., "Boost System Development for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI)," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(2):815-826, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0928.
- Foucher F., Higelin P., Mounaїm-Rousselle C., Dagaut P., Influence of ozone on the combustion of n-heptane in a HCCI engine, Proc. Combust. Inst. 34 (2013) 3005-3012. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2012.05.042.
- Masurier J.-B., Foucher F., Dayma G., Dagaut P., Ozone applied to the homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to control alcohol fuels combustion, Appl. Energy. 160 (2015) 566-580. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.08.004.
- Masurier, J., Foucher, F., Dayma, G., Mounaïm-Rousselle, C. et al., "Towards HCCI Control by Ozone Seeding," SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0049, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-24-0049.
- Pinazzi, P., Masurier, J., Dayma, G., Dagaut, P. et al., "Towards Stoichiometric Combustion in HCCI Engines: Effect of Ozone Seeding and Dilution," SAE Technical Paper 2015-24-2450, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-24-2450.
- Contino F., Masurier J., Foucher F., Lucchini T., CFD simulations using the TDAC method to model iso-octane combustion for a large range of ozone seeding and temperature conditions in a single cylinder HCCI engine, Fuel. 137 (2014) 1-6. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2014.07.084.
- Masurier, J., Foucher, F., Dayma, G., and Dagaut, P., "Effect of Additives on Combustion Characteristics of a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2662, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2662.
- Masurier J.-B., Foucher F., Dayma G., Dagaut P., Investigation of iso-octane combustion in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine seeded by ozone, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, Proc. Combust. Inst. (2014). doi:10.1016/j.proci.2014.05.060.
- Masurier, J., Foucher, F., Dayma, G., Rousselle, C. et al., "Application of an Ozone Generator to Control the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Process," SAE Technical Paper 2015-24-2456, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-24-2456.
- Masurier J.B., Foucher F., Dayma G., Dagaut P., Homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion of primary reference fuels influenced by ozone addition, Energy and Fuels. 27 (2013) 5495-5505. doi:10.1021/ef401009x.
- Pinazzi P.M., Foucher F., Influence of Injection Parameters, Ozone seeding and residual NO on a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine at low load, Proc. Combust. Inst. (2016). doi:10.1016/j.proci.2016.06.075.
- Chemkin, Senkin: a fortran program for predicting homogeneous gas phase chemical kinetics with sensitivity analysis, 1997.
- Curran H.J., Gaffuri P., Pitz W.J., Westbrook C.K., A comprehensive modeling study of iso-octane oxidation, Combust. Flame. 129 (2002) 253-280. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(01)00373-X.
- Halter F., Higelin P., Dagaut P., Experimental and Detailed Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effect of Ozone on the Combustion of Methane, Energy & Fuels. 25 (2011) 2909-2916. doi:10.1021/ef200550m.
- Dempsey A.B., Curran S.J., Wagner R.M., A perspective on the range of gasoline compression ignition combustion strategies for high engine efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions: Effects of in-cylinder fuel stratification, Int. J. Engine Res. 1 (2016). doi:10.1177/1468087415621805.
- Masurier J.-B., Foucher F., Dayma G., Dagaut P., Investigation of iso-octane combustion in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine seeded by ozone, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, Proc. Combust. Inst. 35 (2015) 3125-3132. doi:10.1016/j.proci.2014.05.060.
- Kim H.J., Park S.H., Lee K.S., Lee C.S., A study of spray strategies on improvement of engine performance and emissions reduction characteristics in a DME fueled diesel engine, Energy. 36 (2011) 1802-1813. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2010.12.026.
- Contino F., Foucher F., Dagaut P., Lucchini T., D’Errico G., Mounaïm-Rousselle C., Experimental and numerical analysis of nitric oxide effect on the ignition of iso-octane in a single cylinder HCCI engine, Combust. Flame. 160 (2013) 1476-1483. doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2013.02.028.
- Borgqvist, P., Tunestal, P., and Johansson, B., "Comparison of Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) and Rebreathing Valve Strategies on a Gasoline PPC Engine at Low Load and Idle Operating Conditions," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(1):366-378, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0902.