This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Hardness Study on Laser Cladded Surfaces for a Selected Bead Overlap Conditions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 28, 2017 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Laser cladding is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties at the surface level of a substrate. For surface cladding operations, overlapping bead geometry is required. Single bead analyses do not provide a complete representation of essential properties; hence, this research focuses on overlapping conditions. The research scope targets the coaxial laser cladding process specifically for P420 stainless steel clad powder using a fiber optic laser with a 4.3 mm spot size on a low/medium carbon structural steel plate (AISI 1018). Many process parameters influence the bead geometrical shape, and it is assumed that the complex temperature distributions within the process could cause subsequent large variations in hardness values. The bead overlap configurations experiments are performed with 40%, 50% and 60% bead overlaps for a three-pass bead formation. A three-dimensional transient fully coupled thermal-metallurgical-mechanical finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate hardness variations in the laser cladded component. For the simulation, the thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical data of the clad and substrate materials in the range of room temperature to the melting temperature are assigned as an input data for the analysis. The numerical results of the microhardness, melt pool, and heat affected zone (HAZ) are compared with the Vickers microhardness measurements, melt pool, and HAZ geometry. The results will provide relevant information for process planning decisions and will provide a baseline for predicting properties of metal additive manufactured components.
CitationNazemi, N., Alam, M., Urbanic, R., Saqib, S. et al., "A Hardness Study on Laser Cladded Surfaces for a Selected Bead Overlap Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0285, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0285.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
- Abboud, J.H., West, D.R.F., Rawlings, R.D., “Functionally gradient titanium-aluminide composites produced by laser cladding.” Journal of Materials Science 29 (13):3393–3398, 1994.
- Alimardani, M., Toyserkani, E., Huissoon, J., “A 3D dynamic numerical approach for temperature and thermal stress distributions in multilayer laser solid freeform fabrication process.” Optics and Lasers in Engineering 45:1115–1130, 2007.
- Balu, P., Hamid, S., Kovacevic, R., “Finite element modeling of heat transfer in single and multilayered deposits of Ni-WC produced by the laser-based powder deposition process.” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 68:85–98, 2013.
- Chew, Y., Pang, J.H.L., Bi, G., Song, B., “Thermo-mechanical model for simulating laser cladding induced residual stresses with single and multiple clad beads.”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 224:89–101, 2015.
- Deng, D., Murakawa, H., “Finite element analysis of temperature field, microstructure and residual stress in multi-pass butt-welded 2.25Cr-1Mo steel pipes. Computational Materials Science, 43:681–695, 2008.
- Deus1, A. M., Mazumder, J., “Three-Dimensional Finite Element Models for The Calculation of Temperature and Residual Stress Fields in Laser Cladding.” Proceedings of Laser Materials Processing Conference, ICALEO Congress, Orlando, Fl, 2006.
- Dieter, G.E., “Mechanical Metallurgy.” McGraw-Hill, London, 1988.
- Dong, Z., Wei, Y., “Three dimensional modeling weld solidification cracks in multipass welding. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 46:156–165, 2006.
- Elcoatea, C., Dennisa, R., Bouchardb, P., Smith, M., “Three dimensional multipass repair weld simulations.” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 82:244–257, 2005.
- ESI-Group, SYSWELD 2015 reference manual 2015.
- Farahmand, P., Kovacevic, R., “An experimental-numerical investigation of heat distribution and stress field in single- and multi-track laser cladding by a high-power direct diode laser.” Optics & Laser Technology 63:154–168, 2014.
- Ibarra-Medina, J., Pinkerton, A. J. “Numerical investigation of powder heating in coaxial laser metal deposition.” Surface Engineering, 27(10):754–761, 2011.
- Koïstinen D.P., Marbürger R.E., “A general equation prescribing extent of austenite-martensite transformation in pure Fe-C alloy and plain carbon steels.” Acta Metallurgica, 1959, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp59–60.
- Leblond J., Devaux J., “A new kinetic model for anisothermal metallurgical transformations in steels including effect of austenite grain size.” Acta Metallurgica, 1984, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 137–146.
- Lewis, G.K., Schlienger, E., “Practical considerations and capabilities for laser assisted direct metal deposition.” . Materials and Design, 21:417–423, 2000.
- Lie, W., Ma, J., Kong, F., Liu, S., Kovacenic, R., “Numerical Modeling and Experimental Verification of Residual Stress in Autogenous Laser Welding of High-Strength Steel.” Lasers in Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 2:24–42, 2015.
- Mazumder, J., Dutta, D., Kikuchi, N., Ghosh, A., “Closed loop direct metal deposition: art to part, Optics and Lasers in Engineering.” 34:397–414, 2000.
- Mazumder, J., Schifferer, A., Choi, J., “Direct materials deposition: designed macro and microstructure.” Materials Research Innovations, 3:118–131, 1999.
- Nazemi, N., Urbanic, J, “A Finite Element Analysis for Thermal Analysis of Laser Cladding of Mild Steel with P420 Steel Powder.” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 11–17, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
- Nazemi, N., Urbanic, R. J., “Hardness and Residual stress modeling of powder injection laser cladding of P420 coating on AISI 1018 substrate.” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Ref: HMT_2016_3232, 2016.
- Pavlina, E.J., Van Tyne, C.J., “Correlation of Yield Strength and Tensile Strength with Hardness for Steels.” Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 17(6):888–893, 2008.
- Saqib, S. M., “Experimental Investigation of Laser Cladding Bead Morphology and Process Parameter Relationship for Additive Manufacturing Process Characterization.” Ph.D. dissertation, 2016.
- Shin, K., Natu, H, Dutta, D, Mazumder, J., “A method for the design and fabrication of heterogeneous objects.” Materials and Design, 24:339–353, 2003.
- Suárez, A., Amado, J. M., Tobar, M. J., Yáñez, A., Fraga, E., Peel, M.J., “Study of residual stresses generated inside laser cladded plates using FEM and diffraction of synchrotron radiation.” Surface & Coatings Technology, 204:1983–1988, 2010.
- Tang, T., Felicelli, S.D., “Numerical analysis of thermo-mechanical behavior of laser cladding process.” TMS 143rd annual meeting and exhibition, 1–8, 2014.
- Vilar, R., “Laser cladding, Journal of Laser Applications.” 11(2):64–79, 1999.
- Wang. L., Felicelli, S., “Process Modeling in Laser Deposition of Multilayer SS410 Steel.” Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 129(6):1028–1034, 2007.
- Wen, S.Y., Shin, Y.C., Murthy, J.Y., Sojka, P.E., “Modeling of coaxial powder flow for the laser direct deposition process.” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52:5867–5877, 2009.
- Wu, P., Du, H. M., Chen, X.L., Li, Z.Q., Bai, H.L., Jiang, E.Y., “Influence of WC particle behavior on the wear resistance properties of Ni-WC composite coatings.” 257(1–2):142–147, July2004.
- Xu, G., Kutsuna, M., Liu, Z., Zhang, H., “Characteristics of Ni-based coating layer formed by laser and plasma cladding processes.” Materials Science & Engineering A, 417 (1–2):63–72, 15February2006.
- Xu, G., Kutsuna, M., Liua, Z., Sunb, L., “Charachteristic behaviours of clad layer by a mult-layer laser cladding with powder mixture of Stellite-6 and tungsten carbide.” Surface and Coatings Technology, 201 (6):3385–3392, 4December2006,
- Yakovlev, A., Trunova, E., Grevey, D., Pilloz, M., Smurov, I., “Laser-assisted direct manufacturing of functionally graded 3D objects.” 190 (1, 3):15–24, January2005.
- Zhang, C. S., Li, L., Deceuster, A., “Thermomechanical analysis of multi-bead pulsed laser powder deposition of a nickel-based superalloy.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 211:1478–1487, 2011.
- Zhao, H. Y., Zhang, H. T., Xu, C. H., Yang, X. Q., “Temperature and stress fields of multi-track laser cladding.” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 19 (2):495–501, September2009.
- Zhong, M., Liu, W., “Laser surface cladding: the state of the art and challenges.” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 224:1041–1060, 2010.