This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development of a Surrogate for SASOL IPK and Its Validation in Ignition Quality Tester
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 28, 2017 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
SASOL IPK is a low cetane number synthetic fuel formed from coal by the Fischer-Tropsch process which can be used as an extender to JP8, currently used in military ground vehicles. This paper presents two surrogates developed considering the following criteria: (a) availability of kinetic combustion models for each component, (b) smallest number of components to reduce computation time and cost, (c) matching the following properties of target fuel DCN, distillation curve, density, LHV, MW and H/C ratio. The autoignition and combustion characteristics of the surrogates were validated in IQT according to ASTM D6890-10a. Surrogate formulation strategy involves an equation to calculate DCN of the surrogate mixture from the DCN of each component. The linear equation commonly used for such calculations was modified to include a multiplier, based on regression analysis, for each component to produces DCN values that agree well with the measured DCN in the IQT.
CitationUdayachalam, K., Trivedi, M., Zheng, Z., Shrestha, A. et al., "Development of a Surrogate for SASOL IPK and Its Validation in Ignition Quality Tester," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0263, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0263.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 8]|
- Moses, C. and Roets, P., ''Properties, characteristics, and combustion performance of Sasol Fully Synthetic Jet Fuel,'' J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 131(4): 041502-041502-17, 2009, doi:10.1115/1.3028234.
- Udayachalam, K., "Development of Surrogate for SASOL-IPK and its Validation Using Ignition Quality Tester," Masters' thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, 2016.
- Brakora, J., Ra, Y., and Reitz, R., "Combustion Model for Biodiesel-Fueled Engine Simulations using Realistic Chemistry and Physical Properties," SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):931-947, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0831.
- Vasu, S., Davidson, D. and Hanson, R., "Jet fuel ignition delay times: Shock tube experiments over wide conditions and surrogate model predictions," Combustion and Flame 152(1-2): 125-143, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2007.06.019.
- Agosta, A., "Development of a chemical surrogate for JP-8 aviation fuel using a pressurized flow reactor," Masters' thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, 2002.
- Lenhert, D., "The oxidation of JP-8 and its surrogates in the low and intermediate temperature regime," Ph.D. thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, 2004.
- Dooley, S., Won, S., Chaos, M., Heyne, J. et al., "A jet fuel surrogate formulated by real fuel properties," Combustion and Flame 157(12): 2333-2339, 2010, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2010.07.001.
- Dooley, S., Won, S., Heyne, J., Farouk, T. et al., "The experimental evaluation of a methodology for surrogate fuel formulation to emulate gas phase combustion kinetic phenomena," Combustion and Flame 159(4): 1444-1466, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2011.11.002.
- Honnet, S., Seshadri, S., Niemann, U. and Peters, N., "A surrogate fuel for kerosene," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 32(1): 485-492, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.218.
- Humer, S., Seshadri, K. and Seiser R., "Combustion of jet fuels and its surrogates in laminar nonuniform flows," presented at Fifth US Combustion Meeting, USA, March 25-28, 2007.
- Zheng, Z., Lee, P., Shrestha, A., Badawy, T. et al., "Role of Volatility in the Development of JP-8 Surrogates for Diesel Engine Application," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(1):116-130, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1389.
- Violi, A., Yan, S., Eddings, E., Sarofim, A. et al, "Experimental formulation and kinetic model for JP-8 surrogate mixtures," Combustion Science and Technology 174(11-12):399-417, 2002, doi:10.1080/00102200215080.
- Shrestha, A., Joshi, U., Zheng, Z., Badawy, T. et al., "Experimental Validation and Combustion Modeling of a JP-8 Surrogate in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(1):94-105, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1376.
- Shrestha, A., Zheng, Z., Badawy, T., Henein, N. et al., "Development of JP-8 Surrogates and their Validation using Ignition Quality Tester," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(1):337-351, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-9077.
- Satgé de Caro, P., Mouloungui, Z., Vaitilingom, G. and Ch Berge, J., "Interest of combining an additive with diesel-ethanol blends for use in diesel engines," Fuel 80(4):565-574, 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0016-2361(00)00117-4.
- İçıngür, Y. and Altiparmak, D., "Effect of fuel cetane number and injection pressure on a DI Diesel engine performance and emissions," Energy conversion and management 44(3):389-397, 2003, doi:10.1016/S0196-8904(02)00063-8.
- Kitano, K., Sakata, I., and Clark, R., "Effects of GTL Fuel Properties on DI Diesel Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3763, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-3763.
- Lee, R., Pedley, J., and Hobbs, C., "Fuel Quality Impact on Heavy Duty Diesel Emissions:- A Literature Review," SAE Technical Paper 982649, 1998, doi:10.4271/982649.
- Wadumesthrige, K., Johnson, N., Winston-Galant, M., Sattler, E. et al., "Performance, Durability, and Stability of a Power Generator Fueled with ULSD, S-8, JP-8, and Biodiesel," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0636, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0636.
- Dooley, S., Won, S., Jahangirian, S., Ju, Y. et al., "The combustion kinetics of a synthetic paraffinic jet aviation fuel and a fundamentally formulated, experimentally validated surrogate fuel," Combustion and flame 159(10):3014-3020, 2010, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2012.04.010.
- Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, "Mechanisms," https://combustion.llnl.gov/mechanisms, accessed Feb. 2016.
- The CRECK Modeling Group, "Complete mechanism (Version 1412, December 2014)," http://creckmodeling.chem.polimi.it/index.php/menu-kinetics/menu-kinetics-detailed-mechanisms/menu-kinetics-complete-mechanism, accessed Feb. 2016.
- Aspen Tech, "Aspen HYSYS," http://www.aspentech.com/products/aspen-hysys/, accessed March 2016.
- Mueller, C., Cannella, W., Bruno, T., Bunting, B. et al. "Methodology for formulating diesel surrogate fuels with accurate compositional, ignition-quality, and volatility characteristics," Energy & Fuels 26(6):3284-3303, 2012, doi: 10.1021/ef300303e
- Xiao, Z., Ladommatos, N. and Zhao, H., "The effect of aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenates on diesel engine emissions," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 214(3):307-332, 2000, doi:10.1243/0954407001527448.
- Dryer, L., Ju, Y., Brezinsky, K., Santoro, J., “Generation of Comprehensive Surrogate Kinetic Models and Validation Databases for Large Molecular Weight Hydrocarbon Fuels,” report, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, NJ, 2012.
- Zheng, Z., Badawy, T., Henein, N., Schihl, P. et al., “ Formulation of Sasol IPK Surrogate Fuel for Diesel Engine Application Using an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT),” presented at International Combustion Engine Fall Technical Conference, ASME, USA, October 9-12, 2016, doi:10.1115/ICEF2016-9320.