This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Association of Impact Velocity with Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities to Pedestrians in Commercial Truck-Pedestrian Accidents
Published November 7, 2016 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤ 30 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤20 km/h. The fatality risk was ≤10% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class. The results also revealed that a 10 km/h reduction in impact velocities could mitigate the severity of pedestrian injuries at impact velocities ≥30 km/h for all five analyzed vehicle types. Therefore, serious injuries and fatalities to pedestrians could be decreased by the development and deployment of collision mitigation systems (CMSs) to all vehicles, including to commercial trucks, because CMSs can detect pedestrians in even severe conditions, such as when the drive’s view is obstructed, and can reduce the impact velocity. The present results indicate that CMS design specifications should differ between vehicle types because of the strong dependence of serious-injury and fatality risks on vehicle type.
- Yasuhiro Matsui - National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory
- Shoko Oikawa - National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory
- Kazuhiro Sorimachi - Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.
- Akira Imanishi - Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.
- Takeshi Fujimura - Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.
CitationMatsui, Y., Oikawa, S., Sorimachi, K., Imanishi, A. et al., "Association of Impact Velocity with Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities to Pedestrians in Commercial Truck-Pedestrian Accidents," SAE Technical Paper 2016-22-0007, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-22-0007.
- Anderson, R.W.G., McLean, A.J., Farmer, M.J.B., Lee, B.H., and Brooks, C.G. (1997) Vehicle travel speeds and the incidence of fatal pedestrian crashes. Accident Analysis& Prevention 29: 667-674.
- Behera, R., Gangadharan, J., Kutty, K., Nair, S., and Vaidya, V. (2015) A novel method for day time pedestrian detection. SAE Int. J. Passenger Cars - Electron. Electric System 8(2).
- Davis, G. (2001) Relating severity of pedestrian injury to impact speed in vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Transportation Research Record 1773: 108-113.
- Fukuyama, K., Yamazaki, K., and Matsukawa, F. (2012) Analysis of car-pedestrian accident using a computer simulation model -Influence of front shape on distance pedestrians are thrown-. Journal of the Japanese Council of Traffic Science (in Japanese) 12(2): 30-35.
- Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan (ITARDA) (2015) Annual traffic accident report in 2014 (in Japanese) Tokyo.
- Japan Automobile Standards Internationalization Center (JASIC) (2013) Test for protection of heads and legs of pedestrians. TRIAS18-J099(2)-01, Automobile Type Approval Handbook for Japanese Certification (CD).
- Japan Cabinet Office (2016) Traffic safety master plan for a zero-traffic-accident society. Meeting on Central Traffic Safety Measures (in Japanese).
- Kong, C., and Yang, J. (2010) Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China. Accident Analysis & Prevention 42 (4): 987-993.
- Kuzumaki, S. (2009) Our approach to a safe sustainable society. Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 63(12): 11-19.
- Ljung, M., Jakobsson, L., Lindman, M., and Coelingth, E. (2015) Collision avoidance systems -Advancements and efficiency. Paper presented at: SAE 2015 World Congress & Exposition SAE Technical paper no.2015-01-1406, Detroit, USA.
- Makabe, S. (2012) Active safety system new eyesight version 2. Journal of society of automotive engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 66(3): 88-93.
- Matsui, Y., and Tanahashi, M. (2004) Development of JAMA-JARI pedestrian headform impactor in compliance with ISO and IHRA standards. International Journal of Crashworthiness 9(2): 129-139.
- Matsui, Y. (2004) Crash characteristics and HIC values of pedestrian head impacts in front windshield area. Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 35(1): 191-197.
- Matsui, Y., and Niimura, K. (2005) Selection of suitable accelerometer and improvement of pedestrian headform impactor for impact test against passenger car windshield. Transactions of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 36(4): 187-194.
- Matsui, Y. (2011) Improvement of accelerometers for pedestrian headform impactors in testing following Japanese vehicle safety regulations. International Journal of Vehicle Safety 5(4): 307-318.
- Matsui, Y., Kojima, T., Tanaka, N., Hatano, T., Hirose, T., Sekine, M., Oikawa, S., and Ando, K. (2011a) Performances of the collision damage mitigation braking system for pedestrians. First International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology toward zero-traffic-accident (FAST Zero ‘11) (CD).
- Matsui, Y., Han, Y., and Mizuno, K. (2011b) Performance of collision damage mitigation braking systems and their effects on human injury in the event of car-to-pedestrian accidents. Stapp Car Crash Journal 55: 461-478.
- Matsui, Y., Oikawa, S., and Ando, K. (2013a), Risks of pedestrian serious injuries and fatalities associated with impact velocities of cars in car-versus-pedestrian accidents in Japan. Stapp Car Crash Journal 57: 201-217.
- Matsui, Y., Doi, T., Oikawa, S., and Ando, K. (2013b) Features of fatal pedestrian injuries in vehicle-to-pedestrian accidents in Japan. SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety 1 (2): 297-308.
- Matsui, Y., Hitosugi, M., Takahashi, K., and Doi, T. (2013c) Situations of car-to-pedestrian contact. Traffic Injury Prevention 14(1): 73-77.
- Matsui, Y., Hitosugi, M., Doi, T., Oikawa, S., Takahashi, K., and Ando, K. (2013d) Features of pedestrian behavior in car-to-pedestrian contact situations in near-miss incidents in Japan. Traffic Injury Prevention 14 Supplement 1: S58-S63.
- Mertz, H.J. (2000) Injury risk assessments based on dummy responses. Accidental Injury, Springer-Verlag: 89-102.
- National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (2015) Chronological science tables (in Japanese).
- Noda, A., and Matsui, Y. (2012) Introduction of research committee on damage mitigation brake system for pedestrian detection. Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 66 (12): 54-59.
- Oh, C., Kang, Y., Youn, Y., and Konosu, A. (2008a) Development of probabilistic pedestrian fatality model for characterizing pedestrian-vehicle collisions. International Journal of Automotive Technology 9 (2): 191-196.
- Oh, C., Kang, Y., and Kim, W. (2008b) Assessing the safety benefits of an advanced vehicular technology for protecting pedestrians. Accident Analysis & Prevention 40 (3): 935-942.
- Research Committee for Pedestrian Protection against Vehicle Impact (1972) Granted project report for improvement of safety performance of passenger car. Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI) 2: 60-71.
- Rosen, E., and Sander, U. (2009) Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed. Accident Analysis & Prevention 41: 536-542.
- Saneyoshi, K. (2013) Recent trends of real-time stereo vision for automobile and application to pedestrian detection. Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 67(12): 84-89.
- Sekiguchi, M. (2011) Introduction of SUBARU advanced driving system “EyeSight ver.2”. Proceedings of Safety Engineering Symposium 2011 (in Japanese) (CD).
- Shibata, E. (2009) Development of driving assist system “EyeSight” by new stereo camera. Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) 63 (2): 93-98.
- Yamazaki, S., Yamaguchi, I., and Kagami, K. (2002) Stopping distance of trucks and calculation of initial braking velocity. JARI Research Journal (in Japanese) 24(6): 11-18.
- Yamazaki, S. (2009) Fundamental and application of traffic accident analyses. Tokyo Horei Printing Co., Ltd., Tokyo (in Japanese).