This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Impact of Port Fuel Injection and In-Cylinder Fuel Injection Strategies on Gasoline Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 17, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
As the emission regulations for internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent, different solutions have been researched and developed, such as dual injection systems (combined port and direct fuel injection), split injection strategies (single and multiple direct fuel injection) and different intake air devices to generate an intense in-cylinder air motion. The aim of these systems is to improve the in-cylinder mixture preparation (in terms of homogeneity and temperature) and therefore enhance the combustion, which ultimately increases thermal efficiency and fuel economy while lowering the emissions.
This paper describes the effects of dual injection systems on combustion, efficiency and emissions of a downsized single cylinder gasoline direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engine. A set of experiments has been conducted with combined port fuel and late direct fuel injection strategy in order to improve the combustion process. Several steady state points were selected for this study to represent the typical engine conditions in use. Direct injection timings were varied to find the best injection timing for optimum in-cylinder conditions and therefore optimum efficiency at each speed and load. The results show that net indicated specific fuel consumption (NISFC) could be decreased by up to 9% at 1000 rpm and 8.83 bar NIMEP (net indicated mean effective pressure) using the optimized PFI/late DI injection. At the other test points, NISFC was similar to those with DI-only operation despite higher in-cylinder pressures and slightly shorter combustion durations. In terms of emissions, there was an increase of CO when using both PFI and late DI, while HC decreased slightly at the same conditions. The smoke number shows a significant reduction at most cases compared to the direct injection-only operation.
CitationGolzari, R., Li, Y., and Zhao, H., "Impact of Port Fuel Injection and In-Cylinder Fuel Injection Strategies on Gasoline Engine Emissions and Fuel Economy," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2174, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-2174.
- Zhao , H. Advanced direct injection combustion engine technologies and development - Volume 1: Gasoline and gas engines Woodhead Publishing 978-1-84569-389-3 2010
- Alkidas , A. and El Tahry , S. Contributors to the Fuel Economy Advantage of DISI Engines Over PFI Engines SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3101 2003 10.4271/2003-01-3101
- Stone R. Introduction to internal combustion engines Palgrave Macmillan Basingstoke 9780230576636 023057663X 2012
- Hanabusa , H. , Kondo , T. , Hashimoto , K. , Sono , H. et al. Study on Homogeneous Lean Charge Spark Ignition Combustion SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2562 2013 10.4271/2013-01-2562
- Urushihara , T. , Yamaguchi , K. , Yoshizawa , K. , and Itoh , T. A Study of a Gasoline-fueled Compression Ignition Engine ~ Expansion of HCCI Operation Range Using SI Combustion as a Trigger of Compression Ignition ~ SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0180 2005 10.4271/2005-01-0180
- Zhao H. HCCI and CAI engines for the automotive industry Woodhead Publishing Cambridge 1845691288 9781845691288 1420044591 9781420044591 184569354X 9781845693541 2007
- Ikoma , T. , Abe , S. , Sonoda , Y. , Suzuki , H. et al. Development of V-6 3.5-liter Engine Adopting New Direct Injection System SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1259 2006 10.4271/2006-01-1259
- Zhu , G. , Stuecken , T. , Schock , H. , Yang , X. et al. Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-1767 2008 10.4271/2008-01-1767
- Kim , N. , Cho , S. , Choi , H. , Song , H. et al. The Efficiency and Emission Characteristics of Dual Fuel Combustion Using Gasoline Direct Injection and Ethanol Port Injection in an SI Engine SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1208 2014 10.4271/2014-01-1208
- Kim N. , Cho S. , and Min K. A study on the combustion and emission characteristics of an SI engine under full load conditions with ethanol port injection and gasoline direct injection Fuel 158 725 732 2015
- Cho , S. , Kim , N. , Chung , J. , and Min , K. The Effect of Ethanol Injection Strategy on Knock Suppression of the Gasoline/Ethanol Dual Fuel Combustion in a Spark-Ignited Engine SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0764 2015 10.4271/2015-01-0764
- Liu H. , Wang Z. , Long Y. , Xiang S. et al. Comparative study on alcohol-gasoline and gasoline-alcohol Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) combustion for engine particle number (PN) reduction Fuel 159 250 258 2015
- Liu H. , Wang Z. , Long Y. , Xiang S. et al. Methanol-gasoline Dual-fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) combustion with dual-injection for engine particle number (PN) reduction and fuel economy improvement Energy 89 1010 1017 2015
- Di Iorio , S. , Sementa , P. , and Vaglieco , B. Experimental Investigation of a Methane-Gasoline Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Small Displacement Optical Engine SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0046 2013 10.4271/2013-24-0046
- Di Iorio , S. , Sementa , P. , Vaglieco , B. , and Catapano , F. An experimental investigation on combustion and engine performance and emissions of a methane-gasoline dual-fuel optical engine SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1329 2014 10.4271/2014-01-1329
- Di Iorio , S. , Sementa , P. , and Vaglieco , B. Experimental Characterization of an Ethanol DI - Gasoline PFI and Gasoline DI - Gasoline PFI Dual Fuel Small Displacement SI Engine SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0848 2015 10.4271/2015-01-0848
- Catapano , F. , Di Iorio , S. , Sementa , P. , and Vaglieco , B. Effects of Ethanol and Gasoline Blending and Dual Fueling on Engine Performance and Emissions SAE Technical Paper 2015-24-2490 2015 10.4271/2015-24-2490
- Catapano , F. , Di Iorio , S. , Sementa , P. , and Vaglieco , B. Experimental Analysis of a Gasoline PFI-Methane DI Dual Fuel and an Air Assisted Combustion of a Transparent Small Displacement SI Engine SAE Technical Paper 2015-24-2459 2015 10.4271/2015-24-2459
- Viollet , Y. , Abdullah , M. , Alhajhouje , A. , and Chang , J. Characterization of High Efficiency Octane-On-Demand Fuels Requirement in a Modern Spark Ignition Engine with Dual Injection System SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1265 2015 10.4271/2015-01-1265
- Jaeheun Kim , Hyunwook Park , Choongsik Bae , Myungsik Choi , and Younghong Kwak Effects of water direct injection on the torque enhancement and fuel consumption reduction of a gasoline engine under high-load conditions International Journal of Engine Research 1 14 2015
- Hancock , D. , Fraser , N. , Jeremy , M. , Sykes , R. et al. A New 3 Cylinder 1.2l Advanced Downsizing Technology Demonstrator Engine SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0611 2008 10.4271/2008-01-0611
- Li , Y. , Zhao , H. , Stansfield , P. , and Freeland , P. Synergy between Boost and Valve Timings in a Highly Boosted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Operating with Miller Cycle SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1262 2015 10.4271/2015-01-1262