This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Rapid Development of Diverse Human Body Models for Crash Simulations through Mesh Morphing
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Current finite element (FE) human body models (HBMs) generally only represent young and mid-size male occupants and do not account for body shape and composition variations among the population. Because it generally takes several years to build a whole-body HBM, a method to rapidly develop HBMs with a wide range of human attributes (size, age, obesity level, etc.) is critically needed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a mesh morphing method to rapidly generate skeleton and whole-body HBMs based on statistical geometry targets developed previously.
THUMS V4.01 mid-size male model jointly developed by Toyota Motor Corporation and Toyota Central R&D Labs was used in this study as the baseline HBM to be morphed. Radial basis function (RBF) was used to morph the baseline model into the target geometries. The statistical skeleton geometry models (ribcage, femur, pelvis and tibia) and body shape model used in this study were previously developed based on CT images from more than 300 subjects and whole body scans from more than 200 subjects in total. Using the age, sex, height, and body mass index (BMI), the statistical skeleton model predicted the bone shape and cortical thickness, while the body shape model predicted the body surface contour and locations of the joints and anatomical surface landmarks.
RBF mesh morphing was conducted at the skeleton level as well as the whole-body level across a wide range of body sizes (5th to 95th percentile height for male) and shapes (BMI 20 to 40). The morphing process was automated, so only 2-3 hours were needed to conduct a whole-body mesh morphing on a personal computer. It was found that the morphed skeleton models generally sustained similar mesh qualities as those in the baseline model. The morphed whole-body HBMs may sustain lower mesh qualities in the areas whose geometries are very different to the baseline model. However, these reduced mesh qualities can be improved by adding a smoothing function or better controlling the morphing landmarks during the mesh morphing process.
This study demonstrated that the skeleton and body shape geometries can be rapidly predicted to represent a wide range of human characteristics. The mesh morphing method can rapidly develop skeleton and whole-body HBMs with different body sizes and shapes with a mesh quality similar to the baseline model.
CitationHwang, E., Hallman, J., Klein, K., Rupp, J. et al., "Rapid Development of Diverse Human Body Models for Crash Simulations through Mesh Morphing," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1491, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-1491.
- Bennink , H.E. , Korbeeck , J.M. , Janssen , B.J. , and Haar Romenij , B.M. Warping a Neuro-Anatomy Atlas on 3D MRI data with Radial Basis Function International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering Proceedings 15 28 32 2007
- Carr , J.C. , Fright , W.R. , and Beatson , R.K. Surface Interpolation with Radial Basis Function for Medical Image IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 16 1 96 107 1997
- Dokko , Y. , Ito , O. , and Ohashi , K. Development of Human Lower Limb and Pelvis FE Models for Adult and the Elderly SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0396 2009 10.4271/2009-01-0396
- El-Jawahri , R.E. , Laituri , T.R. , Ruan , J.S. , Rouhana , S.W. , and Barbat , S.D. Development and validation of age-dependent FE human models of a mid-sized male thorax Stapp Car Crash J 54 407 30 2010
- Fryar , C.D. , Gu , Q. , and Ogden , C.L. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2007-2010 Vital and health statistics. Series 11, Data from the national health survey 252 1 48 2012
- Gayzik , F.S. , Moreno , D.P. , Geer , C.P. , Wuertzer , S.D. , Martin , R.S. , and Stitzel , J.D. Development of a full body CAD dataset for computational modeling: a multi-modality approach Ann Biomed Eng 39 10 2568 83 2011
- Gayzik , S. , Moreno , D.P. , Vavalle , N.A. , Rhyne , A.C. , and Stitzel , J.D. Development of Full Human Body Finite Element Model for Blunt Injury Prediction Utilizing a Multi-Modality Medical Imaging Protocol 12th International LS-DYNA User Conference 2012 Dearborn, MI
- Haug , E. , Choi , H.-Y. , Robin , S. , and Beaugonin , M. Human Models for Crash and Impact Simulation Computational Models for the Human Body, Special Volume of Handbook of Numberical Analysis XII Ayache N. 2004 Elsevier New York, NY
- Shigeta K , Kitagawa Y , and Yasuki T Development of Next Generation Human FE Model Capable of Organ Injury Prediction Proceedings of the 21st ESV Conference, 09-0111 2009
- Hu J , Rupp JD , and MP , R. Focusing on vulnerable populations in crashes: recent advances in finite element human models for injury biomechanics research Journal of Automotive Safety and Energy 3 4 295 307 2012
- Ito , O. , Dokko , Y. , and Ohashi , K. Development of Adult and Elderly FE Thorax Skeletal Models SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0381 2009 10.4271/2009-01-0381
- Ito , Y. , Dokko , Y. , Motozawa , Y. , Mori , F. et al. Kinematics Validation of Age-Specific Restrained 50th Percentile Occupant FE Model in Frontal Impact SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0565 2012 10.4271/2012-01-0565
- Watanabe R , Katsuhara T , Miyazaki H , Kitagawa Y , and Yasuki T Research of the Relationship of Pedestrian Injury to Collision Speed, Car-type, Impact Location and Pedestrian Sizes using Human FE Model (THUMS Version 4) Stapp Car Crash Journal 56 269 321 2012
- Kent , R. , Trowbridge , M. , Lopez-Valdes , F.J. , Ordoyo , R.H. , and Segui-Gomez , M. How many people are injured and killed as a result of aging? Frailty, fragility, and the elderly risk-exposure tradeoff assessed via a risk saturation model Ann Adv Automot Med 53 41 50 2009
- Kim , Y.S. , Choi , H.H. , Cho , Y.N. , Park , Y.J. , Lee , J.B. , Yang , K.H. , and King , A.I. Numerical Investigations of Interactions between the Knee-Thigh-Hip Complex with Vehicle Interior Structures Stapp Car Crash Journal 49 85 115 2005
- Klein , K.F. , Hu , J. , Reed , M.P. , Hoff , C.N. , and Rupp , J.D. Development and Validation of Statistical Models of Femur Geometry for Use with Parametric Finite Element Models Annals of biomedical engineering 43 10 2503 14 2015
- Li , Z. , Hu , J. , Reed , M.P. , Rupp , J.D. , Hoff , C.N. , Zhang , J. , and Cheng , B. Development, validation, and application of a parametric pediatric head finite element model for impact simulations Ann Biomed Eng 39 12 2984 97 2011
- Li , Z. , Hu , J. , and Zhang , J. The Comparison of Different Radial Basis Functions In Developing Subject-Specific Infant Head Finite Element Models for Injury Biomechanics Study ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference 2012 Fajardo, Puerto Rico
- Newgard , C.D. and McConnell , K.J. Differences in the effectiveness of frontal air bags by body size among adults involved in motor vehicle crashes Traffic Inj Prev 9 5 432 9 2008
- Ogden , C.L. , Carroll , M.D. , Kit , B.K. , and Flegal , K.M. Prevalence of Obesity in the United States, 2009-2010 NCHS Data Brief 82 2012
- Reed , M.P. and Parkinson , M.B. Modeling Variability in Torso Shape for Chair and Seat Design ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences New York, NY, USA 2008
- Ruan , J. , El-Jawahri , R. , Chai , L. , Barbat , S. , and Prasad , P. Prediction and analysis of human thoracic impact responses and injuries in cadaver impacts using a full human body finite element model Stapp Car Crash J 47 299 321 2003
- Ruan , J.S. , El-Jawahri , R. , Barbat , S. , and Prasad , P. Biomechanical Analysis of Human Abdominal Impact Responses and Injuries though Finite Element Simulations of a Full Human Body Model Stapp Car Crash Journal 49 343 366 2005
- Ruan , J.S. , El-Jawahri , R. , Barbat , S. , Rouhana , S.W. , and Prasad , P. Impact response and biomechanical analysis of the knee-thigh-hip complex in frontal impacts with a full human body finite element model Stapp Car Crash J 52 505 26 2008
- Rupp , J.D. , Flannagan , C.A. , Leslie , A.J. , Hoff , C.N. , Reed , M.P. , and Cunningham , R.M. Effects of BMI on the risk and frequency of AIS 3+ injuries in motor-vehicle crashes Obesity (Silver Spring) 21 1 E88 97 2013
- Serre , T. , Brunet , C. , Bruyere , K. , Verriest , J. et al. HUMOS (Human Model for Safety) Geometry: From One Specimen to the 5th and 95th Percentile SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-2324 2006 10.4271/2006-01-2324
- Shah , C.S. , Yang , K.H. , Hardy , W. , Wang , H.K. , and King , A.I. Development of a computer model to predict aortic rupture due to impact loading Stapp Car Crash J 45 161 82 2001
- Shi , X. , Cao , L. , Reed , M.P. , Rupp , J.D. , and Hu , J. Effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes: a simulation analysis using human body models Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering 2014
- Vezin , P. and Verriest , J.P. Development of a set of numerical human models for safety The 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles 2005 Washington D.C. 16
- Zhu , S. , Layde , P.M. , Guse , C.E. , Laud , P.W. , Pintar , F. , Nirula , R. , and Hargarten , S. Obesity and Risk for Death Due to Motor Vehicle Crashes American Journal of Public Health 96 734 739 2006