This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Implications of Manufacturers’ Bumper Ratings in Low Speed Collision Analysis
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Evaluation of the severity of low speed motor vehicle crashes has been the subject of significant research for more than 25 years. These crashes typically result in little if any damage to the vehicles involved and therefore the ability to determine the threshold of damage would be very useful in analysis of such cases. One such threshold, which has been used by accident reconstructionists, is the manufacturer’s published bumper rating in compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for vehicle bumpers. The rationale is that if there is any damage to the bumper system of the vehicle in question, the impact must have had a severity greater than the rated bumper speed. This paper examines the FMVSS bumper standards upon which the published bumper ratings are reportedly in compliance, historical low speed testing damage results, and engineering considerations of bumper damage in low speed impacts. The results demonstrate that using manufacturers’ bumper ratings as a threshold of damage for real world low speed impacts, while attractive due to its simplicity, is not supported by the data.
CitationKeifer, O., Reckamp, B., Moody, C., and Timpanaro, A., "Implications of Manufacturers’ Bumper Ratings in Low Speed Collision Analysis," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1473, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-1473.
- Siegmund , G. , Bailey , M. , and King , D. Characteristics of Specific Automobile Bumpers in Low-Velocity Impacts SAE Technical Paper 940916 1994 10.4271/940916
- Bailey , M. , Wong , B. , and Lawrence , J. Data and Methods for Estimating the Severity of Minor Impacts SAE Technical Paper 950352 1995 10.4271/950352
- Cipriani , A. , Bayan , F. , Woodhouse , M. , Cornetto , A. et al. Low Speed Collinear Impact Severity: A Comparison Between Full Scale Testing and Analytical Prediction Tools with Restitution Analysis SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0540 2002 10.4271/2002-01-0540
- Ogden , Jerry S. Forensic Engineering Analysis of Damage and Restitution in Low Velocity Impacts Journal of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers XVI 2 December 1999
- Happer , A. , Hughes , M. , Peck , M. , and Boehme , S. Practical Analysis Methodology for Low Speed Vehicle Collisions Involving Vehicles with Modern Bumper Systems SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0492 2003 10.4271/2003-01-0492
- La Heist , Warren G. , and Ephraim , Frank G. An evaluation of the Bumper Standard - As Modified in 1982 NHTSA Report Number DOD HS 807 072 February 1987
- NHTSA Bumper Q&A http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/problems/studies/Bumper/Index.html
- Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 215, 49CFR571.215 Exterior Protection 1976
- Code of Federal Regulations, 49CFR581 Bumper Standard 1979
- Code of Federal Regulations, 49CFR581 Bumper Standard 2011
- Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, (IIHS) 988 Dairy Road, Ruckersville, Virginia www.iihs.org
- Siddall , D. and Day , T. Updating the Vehicle Class Categories SAE Technical Paper 960897 1996 10.4271/960897
- Computer data base, Expert Autostats® 4N6XPRT Systems La Mesa, California