This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Wheelchair Users’ Ingress/Egress Strategies While Transferring Into and Out of a Vehicle
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The ability to independently transfer into and out of a vehicle is essential for many wheelchair users to achieve driving independence. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study that investigated the transfer strategies of wheelchair users who drive from their driver’s seat and not from their wheelchair. The goal of this study was to identify typical ingress and egress motions as well as “touch points” of wheelchair users transferring into and out of the driver’s seat. While motion databases exist for the ingress and egress of able-bodied drivers, this study provides insight on drivers with physical disabilities. Twenty-five YouTube videos of wheelchair users who transferred into and out of their own sedans were analyzed. The locations where the drivers’ hands, feet, and hips interacted with the vehicle, as well as the actions of the drivers while transferring from their wheelchair into the driver’s seat and then transferring from the driver’s seat into their wheelchair were recorded. Action sequences and wheelchair and vehicle touch points were plotted in CAD. Results indicate that drivers tend to transfer using one of two primary techniques, hand-first or foot-first, and that clusters of touch points are mainly found on the driver’s seat and the steering wheel of the vehicle. The strategies used and touch point locations for ingress and egress were very similar. Knowledge gained in this study may impact future vehicle design, making vehicles easier to access for drivers with and without disabilities.
- Gregory Schaupp - CU-ICAR
- Julia Seeanner - CU-ICAR
- Casey Jenkins - CU-ICAR
- Joseph Manganelli - CU-ICAR
- Sarah Hennessy - Roger C. Peace Rehabilitation Hospital
- Constance Truesdail - Roger C. Peace Rehabilitation Hospital
- Lindsay Swift - Roger C. Peace Rehabilitation Hospital
- Paul Venhovens - CU-ICAR
- Johnell Brooks - CU-ICAR
CitationSchaupp, G., Seeanner, J., Jenkins, C., Manganelli, J. et al., "Wheelchair Users’ Ingress/Egress Strategies While Transferring Into and Out of a Vehicle," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1433, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-1433.
- Causse, J., Chateauroux, E., Monnier, G., Wang, X. et al., "Dynamic Analysis of Car Ingress/Egress Movement: an Experimental Protocol and Preliminary Results," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 2(1):1633-1640, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-2309.
- Cherednichenko, A., Assmann, E., and Bubb, H., "Computational Approach for Entry Simulation," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-2358, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-2358.
- Giacomin, J., & Quattrocolo, S. (1997). An analysis of human comfort when entering and exiting the rear seat of an automobile. Applied Ergonomics, 28(5-6), 697-406. doi: 10.1016/S0003-6870(97)00001-X
- Petzäll, J. (1995). The design of entrances of taxis for elderly and disabled passengers. Applied Ergonomics, 26(5), 343-352. doi: 10.1016/0003-6870(95)00051-8
- Brault, M.W. (2012). Americans with disabilities: 2010. Current population reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
- Kaye, H.S., Kang, T., & LaPlante, M.P. (June 2000). Mobility device use in the United States. Disability Statistics Report, No. 14). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.
- Administration of Aging. (2010). Projected Future Growth of the Older Population. Retrieved from http://www.aoa.gov/aoaroot/aging_statistics/future_growth/future_growth.aspx#age
- Federal Highway Administration. (2011). Our nations highway. U.S. Department of Transportation.
- U.S. Census Bureau. (1900 - 2012, May 22). Population estimates. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/popest/data/historical/index.html
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Diabetes public health resource. Retrieved July 27, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/statistics/prev/national/figpersons.htm
- Boyle, J.P., Thompson, T.J., Gregg, E.W., & Williamson, D.F. (2010). Projection of the year 2050 burden of diabetes in the US adult population: Dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and prediabetes prevalence. Population Health Metrics, 8(1), 29. doi: 10.1186/1478-7954-8-29
- National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Institutes of Health. (2014). Spinal cord injury: Hope through research. Bethesda, MD: Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/sci/detail_sci.htm
- National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. (2013). Spinal cord injury facts and figures at glance. Retrieved August 21, 2014, from https://www.nscisc.uab.edu/PublicDocuments/fact_figures_docs/Facts%202013.pdf
- Fischer, H. (2014). U.S. military casualty statistics: Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from http://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22452.pdf
- Kataoka, M., Yasuda, T., Kataoka, T., Ueda, E., Yonetsu, R., & Okuda, K. (2012). Movement strategies during car transfers in individuals with tetraplegia: A preliminary study. Spinal Cord, 50,440-445.doi:10.1038/sc.2011.170