This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Effects of Lube Oil Sulfur and Ash on Size, Morphology and Element Composition of Diesel Particles
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
In this paper, the influence of sulfur and ash fraction of lubricating oil on particle emissions was investigated via experimental works. Especially, we focus on the characterizations like size distribution, morphology and element composition in diesel particles. All of the research was done on a two-cylinder diesel engine under different load conditions. Five kinds of lubricating oils with different levels of sulfur and ash fraction were used in this study, among which a kind of 5W-30 (ACEA, C1) oil was used as baseline oil. Diesel primary particles were collected by thermophoretic system, and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum technique, respectively. Conclusions drawn from the experiments indicate that the sulfur and ash change the primary particle emissions directly. The sulfur fraction in oil increases the amount of primary particles with small diameter, while ash fraction leads to more primary particles with large diameter and shift the size distribution to the large size area. Besides, the boundary of the primary particles shows ambiguous when uses oil with high sulfur fraction. The nanostructure analysis results show that compared with the baseline oil, both sulfur and ash influence the nanostructure of particles and lead to shorter fringes with higher tortuosity. The energy dispersive X-ray spectrum test results show that the concentration of Carbon decreases when using oils with high sulfur and ash concentration. Also in relative compare to baseline oil, more Phosphorous, Sulfur, and Oxygen elements were found, when the oil with higher sulfur and ash fraction was used.
- Yuesen Wang - State Key Laboratory of Engines
- Xingyu Liang - State Key Laboratory of Engines
- Ge-Qun Shu - State Key Laboratory of Engines
- lihui Dong - Civil Aviation University of China
- Hanzhengnan Yu - State Key Laboratory of Engines
- Yajun Wang - State Key Laboratory of Engines
- Zhijun Li - State Key Laboratory of Engines
CitationWang, Y., Liang, X., Shu, G., Dong, l. et al., "Effects of Lube Oil Sulfur and Ash on Size, Morphology and Element Composition of Diesel Particles," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0999, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0999.
- Reed M. D., Gigliotti A. P., McDonald J. D., Seagrave J. C. et al., "Health effects of subchronic exposure to environmental levels of diesel exhaust," Inhalation toxicology 16(4):177-93, 2004, doi:10.1080/08958370490277146.
- Broday D. M., Rosenzweig R., "Deposition of fractal-like soot aggregates in the human respiratory tract," Journal of Aerosol Science 42(6), 372-386, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2011.03.001.
- Mazzarella G., Ferraraccio F., Prati M. V., Annunziata S. et al., "Effects of diesel exhaust particles on human lung epithelial cells: an in vitro study," Respiratory medicine 101(6), 1155-1162, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2006.11.011.
- Toner S. M., Sodeman D.A., Prather K. A., "Single particle characterization of ultrafine and accumulation mode particles from heavy duty diesel vehicles using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry," Environmental science and technology 40(12), 3912-3921, 2006, doi: 10.1021/es051455x.
- Sarvi A., Fogelholm C. J., Zevenhoven R., "Emissions from large-scale medium-speed diesel engines: 2. Influence of fuel type and operating mode," Fuel processing technology 89(5), 520-527, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2007.10.005.
- Di Y., Cheung C. S., and Huang Z., "Experimental study on particulate emission of a diesel engine fueled with blended ethanol-dodecanol-diesel," Journal of Aerosol Science 40(2): 101-112, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2008.09.004.
- Xu Z., Li X., Guan C., and Huang Z., "Effects of injection pressure on diesel engine particle physico-chemical properties," Aerosol Science and Technology 48(2): 128-138, 2014, doi: 10.1080/02786826.2013.862589.
- Lee, K., Cole, R., Sekar, R., Choi, M. et al., "Detailed Characterization of Morphology and Dimensions of Diesel Particulates via Thermophoretic Sampling," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3572, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-3572.
- Jefferd, K., Rogerson, J., Copp, D., Brundle, R. et al., "The Impact of Lubricants on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1983, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-1983.
- Dong L., Shu G., and Liang X., "Effect of lubricating oil on the particle size distribution and total number concentration in a diesel engine," Fuel Processing Technology, 109: 78-83, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2012.09.040.
- De Albuquerque, Cardoso Pablo Carmélio, de Andrade Ávila R. N., and Zárante P. H. Barros et al., "Lubricating oil influence on exhaust hydrocarbon emissions from a gasoline fueled engine," Tribology International, 44(12): 1796-1799, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2011.07.003.
- Yehliu, K., Vander Wal, R. L., Armas, O., and Boehman, A. L., "Impact of fuel formulation on the nanostructure and reactivity of diesel soot," Combustion and Flame 159(12), 3597-3606, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2012.07.004.
- Lapuerta M., Oliva F., Agudelo J. R., and Boehman A. L., "Effect of fuel on the soot nanostructure and consequences on loading and regeneration of diesel particulate filters," Combustion and Flame, vol. 159, pp. 844-853, 2012.
- Froelund, K., Yilmaz, E., Impact of engine oil consumption on particulate emissions. In ICAT International Conference on Automotive Technology, Istanbul, Turkey, 2004.
- Froelund, K., Owens, E., Frame, E., Buckingham, J. et al., "Impact of Lubricant Oil on Regulated Emissions of a Light-Duty Mercedes-Benz OM611 CIDI-Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1901, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-1901.
- Manni, M., Gommellini, C., and Sabbioni, G., "Effect of Physical Characteristics of Lubricating Oils on Emissions, Fuel Economy and Oil Consumption in a Light Duty Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 952552, 1995, doi:10.4271/952552.
- Andrews, G., Abdelhalim, S., and Li, H., "The Influence of Lubricating Oil Age on Oil Quality and Emissions from IDI Passenger Car Diesels," SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1135, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-1135.
- Kleeman M. J., Riddle S. G., Robert M. A., and Jakober C. A., "Lubricating oil and fuel contributions to particulate matter emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles", Environmental science & technology 42(1), 235-242. 2007, doi: 10.1021/es071054c.
- Sappok, A., Beauboeuf, D., and Wong, V., "A Novel Accelerated Aging System to Study Lubricant Additive Effects on Diesel Aftertreatment System Degradation," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 1(1):813-827, 2009, doi:10.4271/2008-01-1549.
- Sappok, A., Rodriguez, R., and Wong, V., "Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry on Ash Properties Impacting Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(1):705-722, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1213.
- Müller J. O., Su D. S., Jentoft R. E., and Wild U. et al., "Diesel engine exhaust emission: Oxidative behavior and microstructure of black smoke soot particulate," Environmental science & technology, 40(4), 1231-1236, 2006, doi: 10.1021/es0512069 .