This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Analysis of EPAct Emission Data Using T70 as an Additional Predictor of PM Emissions from Tier 2 Gasoline Vehicles
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
In 2008-2009, EPA and DOE tested fifteen 2008 model year Tier 2 vehicles on 27 fuels. The fuels were match-blended to specific fuel parameter targets. The fuel parameter targets were pre-selected to represent the range of fuel properties from fuel survey data from the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers for 2006. EPA's analysis of the EPAct data showed that higher aromatics, ethanol, and T90 increase particulate matter (PM) emissions. EPA focused their analysis only on the targeted fuel properties and their impacts on emissions, namely RVP, T50, T90, aromatics, and ethanol. However, in the process of fuel blending, at least one non-targeted fuel property, the T70 distillation parameter, significantly exceeded 2006 Alliance survey parameters for two of the E10 test fuels. These two test fuels had very high PM emissions. In this study, we examine the impacts of adding T70 as an explanatory variable to the analysis of fuel effects on PM. We then compare an emissions model using just the EPA variables to our new emissions model using T70. Results indicate that for the EPAct test program, the T70 distillation parameter is a better predictor of cold start PM emissions than the other distillation parameters, and a cold start emissions model that includes T70 does not include an ethanol term for cold start emissions. Further results indicate that if T70 is added to the Bag 1 EPAct model and used in EPA’s MOVES2014 emission inventory model, increased ethanol levels beyond E10 are predicted to reduce PM from on-road motor vehicles in the U.S.
CitationDarlington, T., Kahlbaum, D., Van Hulzen, S., and Furey, R., "Analysis of EPAct Emission Data Using T70 as an Additional Predictor of PM Emissions from Tier 2 Gasoline Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0996, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0996.
- “Going Global, 2015 Ethanol Industry Outlook”, Renewable Fuels Association, http://ethanolrfa.3cdn.net/c5088b8e8e6b427bb3_cwm626ws2.pdf
- EPA, Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy to Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content to 15 Percent, Decision of Administrator, FR Vol. 75, No. 213, Thursday, November 4, 2012.
- EPA, Partial Grant of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy to Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content to 15 Percent, Decision of Administrator, FR Vol. 76, No. 213, Thursday, November 4, 2012.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Assessing the Effects of Five Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles Certified to Tier 2 Standards: Analysis of Data from EPAct Phase 3 (EPAct/V2/E-89), document number EPA-420-R-13002.Available at http:www.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/documents/420r13002.pdf
- Aikawa, K., Sakurai, T., and Jetter, J., "Development of a Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):610-622, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2115.
- Anderson, J., Wallington, T., Stein, R., and Studzinski, W., "Issues with T50 and T90 as Match Criteria for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(3):1027-1040, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-9080.
- Butler, A., Sobotowski, R., Hoffman, G., and Machiele, P., "Influence of Fuel PM Index and Ethanol Content on Particulate Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1072, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1072.
- Sobotowski, R., Butler, A., and Guerra, Z., "A Pilot Study of Fuel Impacts on PM Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 8(1):214-233, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-9071.
- Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, North American Fuel Survey, Summer (July) 2006.
- Butler and Warila, EPACT/V2/E-89: Testing, Results and Application in MOVES2013, FACA MOVES Review Workgroup, April 30, 2013.
- R Core Team (2015). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/.
- Data Desk® 7.0.2 (OS X), Data Description, Inc., Ithaca, New York. URL http://http://www.datadesk.com/.
- NCSS Statistical Software, Chapter 312, All Possible Regressions, ncss.com.
- Exhaust Emissions Rates for Light-Duty On-road Vehicles in MOVES2014, Final Report, EPA, EPA-420-R-15-005, October 2015.
- Kansas City PM Characterization Study, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, April 2008, EPA420-R-08-009.