This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of GDI Spray Impact over Walls at Different Temperatures
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Internal combustion engines performance greatly depends on the air-fuel mixture formation and combustion processes. In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, in particular, the impact of the liquid spray on the piston or cylinder walls is a key factor, especially if mixture formation occurs under the so-called wall-guided mode. Impact causes droplets rebound and/or deposition of a liquid film (wallfilm). After being rebounded, droplets undergo what is called secondary atomization. The wallfilm may remain of no negligible size, so that fuel vapor rich zones form around it leading to so-called pool-flames (flames placed in the piston pit), hence to unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter (PM) formation.
A basic study of the spray-wall interaction is here performed by directing a multi-hole GDI spray against a real shape engine piston, possibly heated, under standard air conditions. High temporal and spatial resolution images are collected to obtain information about spray penetration and impact over wall at different temperatures. Firstly, the spray dynamics is analyzed through a visible high speed camera; secondly, the impact on the piston is studied through both infrared thermography and surface temperature measurements by fast response thermocouples. The experimental study is devoted also to the validation of a properly developed 3D CFD spray simulation model that has the novelty of accounting for the conductive heat exchange within the piston. The CFD model is conceived with the scope of its future application within numerical calculations of entire GDI engine working cycles. The piston cooling by the subtraction of the latent heat of vaporization of gasoline needed for secondary evaporation is particularly relevant for a correct prediction of droplet splashing and deposition phenomena and of the actual equivalence ratio distribution within the combustion chamber, hence to accurately predict HC and PM formation. The obtained results serve to clarify the importance of considering local surface temperature variations during the spray impact and its link with a multi-component fuel evaporation model.
CitationCatapano, F., Costa, M., Marseglia, G., Sementa, P. et al., "An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of GDI Spray Impact over Walls at Different Temperatures," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0853, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0853.
- European Parliament: Commission Regulation (EU) No.459/2012. (2012), Nr. 459.
- Zhao, H., “Advanced Direct Injection Combustion Engine Technologies and Development,” Vol.I: Gasoline and Gas Engines, Vol.II: Diesel Engines, Woodhead Publishing, 2010.
- Sementa, P., Vaglieco B.M., Catapano, F., "Thermodynamic and optical characterizations of a high performance GDI engine operating in homogeneous and stratified charge mixture conditions fueled with gasoline and bio-ethanol, "Fuel, vol.96, pp. 204-2019, 2012.
- Wang, C., Xu, H., Herreros, J.M., Wang, J., et al., "Impact of Fuel and Injection System on Particle Emissions from a GDI Engine, " Applied Energy, vol. 132, pp. 178-191, 2014.
- Honda, T., Kawamoto, M., Katashiba, H., Sumida, M. et al., "A Study of Mixture Formation and Combustion for Spray Guided DISI," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0046, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-0046.
- Aleiferis, P.G., Serras-Pereira, J., Van Romunde, Z., Caine, J., et al., "Mechanisms of Spray Formation and Combustion From A Multi-Hole Injector With E85 And Gasoline," Combustion and Flame, 157, 735-756, 2010.
- Shim, Y. S., Choi, G. M., and Kim, D. J., "Numerical and Experimental Study on Effect of Wall Geometry on Wall Impingement Process of Hollow Cone Fuel Spray under Various Ambient Conditions, " International Journal of Multiphase Flow, vol. 35, pp. 885-895, 2009.
- Köpple, F., Jochmann, P., Hettinger, A., Kufferath, A. et al., "A Novel CFD Approach for an Improved Prediction of Particulate Emissions in GDI Engines by Considering the Spray-Cooling on the Piston," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0385, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0385.
- Köpple, F., Seboldt, D., Jochmann, P., Hettinger, A. et al., "Experimental Investigation of Fuel Impingement and Spray-Cooling on the Piston of a GDI Engine via Instantaneous Surface Temperature Measurements," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(3):1178-1194, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1447.
- Carling, R. W., “Predictive Simulation of Combustion Engine Performance in an Evolving Fuel Environment,” Sandia National Laboratories Report, 2010.
- Malaguti, S. and Fontanesi, S., "CFD Investigation of Fuel Film Formation within a GDI Engine under Cold Start Cranking Operation", ASME Paper ICES2009-76055.
- Schulz, F., Schmidt, J., Kufferath, A., and Samenfink, W., "Gasoline Wall Films and Spray/Wall Interaction Analyzed by Infrared Thermography," SAE Int. J. Engines 7(3):1165-1177, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1446.
- Landenfeld, T., Kufferath, A., and Gerhardt, J., "Gasoline Direct Injection - SULEV Emission Concept," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0041, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-0041.
- Drake, M. C. and Haworth, D. C., "Advanced Gasoline Engine Development Using Optical Diagnostic and Numerical Modeling, " Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, vol.31, pp. 99-124, 2007.
- Catapano, F., Marseglia, G., Sementa, P., Vaglieco B.M., “Gasoline spray characterization and droplets-wall interaction at different piston temperatures,” XXXVIII Meeting of the Italian Section of the Combustion Institute, Lecce, September 2015.
- Dinc, M. and Gray, D. D., "Drop impingement onto a wetted surface: effects of gravity and shape, " International Journal of Mechanics, 7 (1): 26-36, 2013.
- Ashgriz Ed., N., “Handbook of Atomization and Sprays -Theory and Applications,” Springer, New York, 2011.
- Bernardin, J. D. and Mudawar, I., "Transition Boiling Heat Transfer of Droplets Streams and Sprays,"Journal of Heat Transfer, vol. 129, pp.1605-1610, 2007.
- Yang, J., Yi, J., and Anderson, RW. ,“3-D modeling of fuel-air mixing in DISI engines 450” Ford technical report, 1997
- Kang, JJ. and Kim, DJ., "Effects of piston shapes and intake flow on the behavior of fuel 460 mixtures in a GDI engine, " KSME Int J,17(12):2027-33, 2003.
- Catapano, F., Costa, M., Marseglia, G., Sementa, P. et al., "Experimental and Numerical Investigation in a Turbocharged GDI Engine Under Knock Condition by Means of Conventional and Non-Conventional Methods," SAE Int. J. Engines 8(2):437-446, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0397.
- “Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloy,”ASM Handbook, Vol.1, ASM International, 1990.
- Esfahanian, V., Javaheri, A., and Ghaffarpour, M., "Thermal analysis of an SI engine piston using different combustion boundary condition treatments, "Applied Thermal Engineering(26):277-287, 2006.
- Cerit, M. and Coban, M., " Temperature and thermal stress analyses of a ceramic-coated aluminium alloy piston used in a diesel engine, " International Journal of Thermal Sciences (77):11-18, 2014.
- Ramos, J. I., Internal Combustion Engine Modelling, CRC Press, 1989.
- Costa, M., Sorge, U. and Allocca, L., “CFD optimization for GDI spray model tuning and enhancement of engine performance”, Advances in Engineering Software, 49, pp. 43-53, 2012.
- Brenn, G., Deviprasath, L. J., and Durst, F., “Computations and Experiments on the Evaporation of Multi-Component Droplets,” Proceedings 9th International Conference Liquid Atomization Spray Systems (ICLASS), Sorrento, 2003.
- Durbin P., "Separated flow computations with the k-ϵ-u2 model, " AIAA Journal, (33): 659-664, 1995
- Kuhnke, D., "Spray Wall Interaction Modeling by Dimensionless Data Analysis, " PhD Thesis, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 2004.
- Cossali, G. E., Coghe, A., and Marengo, M., "The impact of a single drop on a wetted solid surface, " Experiments in fluids (22):463-472,1997.
- Fujimoto, H. and Hatta, N., "Deformation and rebounding processes of a water droplet impinging on a flat surface above Leidenfrost temperature, " Journal of Fluids Engineering, 118(1): 142-149, 1996.
- Costa, M., Sorge, U., and Allocca, L., "Numerical study of the mixture formation process in a four-stroke GDI engine for two-wheel applications, " Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory,19, 1212-1226, 2011.
- Montanaro, A., Allocca, L., Sorge, U., Zhang, A. et al., "Simultaneous Shadowgraph/Mie Scattering Imaging of Liquid and Vapor Phases of Diesel Sprays and Validation of a Numerical Model," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2744, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2744.