This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Optimization of the Number of Thermoelectric Modules in a Thermoelectric Generator for a Specific Engine Drive Cycle
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Two identical commercial Thermo-Electric Modules (TEMs) were assembled on a plate type heat exchanger to form a Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) unit in this study. This unit was tested on the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) flow path of a test engine. The data collected from the test was used to develop and validate a steady state, zero dimensional numerical model of the TEG. Using this model and the EGR path flow conditions from a 30% torque Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) engine test, an optimization of the number of TEM units in this TEG device was conducted. The reduction in fuel consumption during the transient test cycle was estimated based on the engine instantaneous Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). The perfect conversion of TEG recovered electrical energy to engine shaft mechanical energy was assumed. Simulations were performed for a single TEG unit (i.e. 2 TEMs) to up to 50 TEG units (i.e. 100 TEMs). These TEG units were assumed to be connected mechanically and thermally in series. The simulation results showed that the reduction in fuel consumption with the increase in the number of TEG units was nonlinear and there was a limit to the fuel consumption reduction that could be achieved on the NRTC test case. The maximum fuel saving for this cycle was observed to be less than 3%. A TEG device consisting of 14 TEG units (28 TEMs) was found to recover up to 80% of the thermal energy in the EGR flow-path of the test engine.
CitationYang, Z., Winward, E., Lan, S., and Stobart, R., "Optimization of the Number of Thermoelectric Modules in a Thermoelectric Generator for a Specific Engine Drive Cycle," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0232, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0232.
- Heremans J. P., Thermoelectric Materials and Energy Conversion Cycles for Mobile Applications, Basisc Research Needs to Assure a Secure Energy Future-DOE Report from the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, February, 2003
- Saidur R., Rezaei M., Muzammil W. K., Hassan M. H., Paria S., Hassanuzzaman M., Technologies to Recover Exhaust Heat from Internal Combustion Engines, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 16, Issue 8, October 2012, Pages 5649-5659
- Ghamaty S., Bass J. C. and Elsner N. B., Quantum Well Thermoelectric Devices and Applications, Thermoelectrics, 2003 Twenty-Second International Conference on-ICT, 17-21 Aug. 2003, page 563-566
- Crane D. T., Potential Thermoelectric Applications in Diesel Vehicles, Proceedings of the 9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference: August 24-28, 2003, Newport, Rhode Island
- Högblom O., Andersson R., CFD Modeling of Thermoelectric Generators in EGR-coolers, Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Thermoelectrics, Thessalonik, Greece, 28th-30th September, 2011
- Wijewardane, A. and Stobart, R., "Addressing the Heat Exchange Question for Thermo-Electric Generators," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0550, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0550.
- Stobart R. K., Wijewardane A., Allen C., The Potential for Thermo-Electric Devices in Passenger Vehicle Applications, SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0833
- Stobart, R., Wijewardane, A., and Allen, C., "The Potential for Thermo-Electric Devices in Passenger Vehicle Applications," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0833, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0833.
- Cheng Y. and Lin W., “Geometric optimization of thermoelectric coolers in a confined volume using genetic algorithms”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 25(17):2983-2997, 2005.
- Hodes M., “Optimal design of thermoelectric refrigerators embedded in a thermal resistance network”, Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on, 2(3):483-495, 2012.
- Hsiao Y., Chang W. and Chen S., “A mathematic model of thermoelectric module with applications on waste heat recovery from automobile engine”, Energy, 35(3):1447-1454, 2010.
- Jang J. and Tsai Y., “Optimization of thermoelectric generator module spacing and spreader thickness used in a waste heat recovery system”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 51(1):677-689, 2013.
- Bass J., Elsner N. B. and Leavitt F. A., “Performance of the 1 kw thermoelectric generator for diesel engines”, AIP Conference Proceedings, pages 295-295. IOP INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING LTD, 1995.
- Chen J., Lin B., Wang H. and Guoxing Lin, “Optimal design of a multi-couple thermoelectric generator”, Semiconductor Science and Technology, 15(2):184, 2000.
- Chien H., Chu E., Hsieh H., Huang J., Wu S., Dai M., Liu C. and Yao D., “Evaluation of temperaturedependent effective material properties and performance of a thermoelectric module”, Journal of electronic materials, 42(7):2362-2370, 2013.
- Winward, E., Deng, J., and Stobart, R., "Innovations In Experimental Techniques For The Development of Fuel Path Control In Diesel Engines," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(1):594-613, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1132.
- Title 40 United States Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1039, Appendix VI, 2004.
- Sze, C., Whinihan, J., Olson, B., Schenk, C. et al., "Impact of Test Cycle and Biodiesel Concentration on Emissions," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-4040, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-4040.
- Yang, Z., Winward, E., O'Brien, G., and Stobart, R., “Modelling the Exhaust Gas Recirculation Mass Flow Rate in Modern Diesel Engines”, SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0550, 2016, In Press.
- Yovanovich M., Culham J., Teertstra R., “Calculating Interface Resistance”, Electronics Cooling, 1997
- Rohsenow W.M., Hartnett J.P., and Cho Y.I.. Handbook of heat transfer. McGraw-Hill handbooks. McGraw-Hill, 1998.