This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Design and Implementation of Parking Control Algorithm for Autonomous Valet Parking
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 05, 2016 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This paper represents a parking lot occupancy detection and parking control algorithm for the autonomous valet parking system. The parking lot occupancy detection algorithm determine the occupancy of the parking space, using LiDAR sensors mounted at each side of front bumper. Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) method is used to cluster that information. After that, a global parking map, which includes all parking lots and access road, is constructed offline to figure out which cluster is located in a parking space. By doing this, searching for available parking lots has been finished. The proposed parking control algorithm consists of a reference path generation, a path tracking controller, and a parking process controller. At first, route points of the reference path are determined under the consideration of the minimum turning radius and minimum safety margin with near parking. After route points is determined, the reference path is generated by connecting straight lines and arcs between pre-determined route points. A path tracking controller which determines a desired steering wheel angle is designed by the combination of road curvature based feedforward and feedback linear quadratic optimal control method using 2 DOF bicycle model. In this paper, a desired velocity of vehicle is maintained as constant during the parking process to simplify the path generation problem. Finally, parking process control algorithm determines the sequence of parking and gear change timing. The proposed control algorithm for autonomous valet parking has been validated via computer simulations and successfully implemented on a test vehicle.
|Technical Paper||Towards a Supermileage Autonomous Vehicle|
|Technical Paper||A Service Oriented Integration Framework for Blow Molded Automotive Parts Design and Optimization|
|Technical Paper||Upgrade Levels of the Bosch ABS|
CitationJeong, Y., Kim, S., Yi, K., Lee, S. et al., "Design and Implementation of Parking Control Algorithm for Autonomous Valet Parking," SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0146, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0146.
- Kim, W., Kim, D., Yi, K., and Kim, H., “Development of a path-tracking control system based on model predictive control using infrastructure sensors,” Vehicle System Dynamics 50(6):1001-1023, 2012, doi:10.1080/00423114.2011.597864
- Wang, H., and He, W., “A Reservation-based Smart Parking System,” IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops, 2011, doi:10.1109/INFCOMW.2011.5928901
- Wang, C., et al. “Automatic Parking Based on Bird’s Eye View Vision System,” Advances in Mechanical Engineering 6, 2014, doi:10.1155/2014/847406
- Sans, M., “X-by-Wire Park Assistance for Electric City Cars,” Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), 2013, doi:10.1109/EVS.2013.6915008
- Schreiber, Markus, Knoppel Carsten, Franke Ulrik. "Laneloc: Lane marking based localization using highly accurate maps." Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2013 IEEE, doi: 10.1109/IVS.2013.6629509.
- Tao Z., Bonnifait Ph., Fremont V., Ibanez-Guzman J., "Lane marking aided vehicle localization." Intelligent Transportation Systems-(ITSC), 2013 16th International IEEE Conference on, doi: 10.1109/ITSC.2013.6728444.
- Gruyer Dominique, Belaroussi Rachid, Revilloud Marc. "Map-aided localization with lateral perception." Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings, 2014 IEEE, doi: 10.1109/IVS.2014.6856528.
- Suganuma. N., Uozumi T.., "Precise position estimation of autonomous vehicle based on map-matching." Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2011 IEEE, doi: 10.1109/IVS.2011.5940510.
- Cui Dixiao, Xue Jianru, Du Shaoyi, Zheng Nanning, "Real-time global localization of intelligent road vehicles in lane-level via lane marking detection and shape registration." Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2014), 2014 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, doi: 10.1109/IROS.2014.6943267.
- Fabian, T. "An Algorithm for Parking Lot Occupation Detection." Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications, 2008. CISIM ’08. 7th, doi: 10.1109/CISIM.2008.53.
- Bulan Orhan, Loce Robert P., Wu Wencheng, Wang YaoRong, et al. "Video-based real-time on-street parking occupancy detection system." J. Electron. Imaging. 22(4), 041109 (Aug 12, 2013), doi: 10.1117/1.JEI.22.4.041109.
- Ichihashi H., Notsu A., Honda K., Katada T., et al. "Vacant Parking Space Detector for Outdoor Parking Lot by Using Surveillance Camera and FCM Classifier." Fuzzy Systems, 2009. FUZZ-IEEE 2009. IEEE International Conference on, doi: 10.1109/FUZZY.2009.5277099.
- Gomez-Bravo, F., Cuesta, F., Ollero, A., and Viguria, A., “Continuous curvature path generation based on β-spline curves for parking manouevres,” Robotics and autonomous systems, 56(4):360-372, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.robot.2007.08.004
- Gomez-Bravo, F., Cuesta, F., and Ollero, A., “Parallel and diagonal parking in nonholonomic autonomous vehicles”, Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, 14(4):419-434, 2001, doi:10.1016/S0952-1976(01)00004-5
- Cheng, K., Zhang, Y., and Chen, H., “Planning and Control for a Fully-automatic Parallel Parking Assist System in Narrow Parking Spaces,” IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2013, doi:10.1109/IVS.2013.6629669
- Yoon, S., Yoon, S. E., LEE, U., and Shim, D. H., “Recursive Path Planning Using Reduced States for Car-Like Vehicles on Grid Maps”, Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 16(5):2797-2813, 2015, doi:10.1109/TITS.2015.2422991
- Wang D.Z., Posner I., Newman P., "What could move? Finding cars, pedestrians and bicyclists in 3D laser data." Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, doi: 10.1109/ICRA.2012.6224734.
- Reeds, J., and Shepp, L., “Optimal paths for a car that goes both forwards and backwards,” Pacific journal of mathematics, 145(2):367-393, 1990, doi:10.2140/pjm.1990.145.367
- Snider, J., M., “Automatic Steering Methods for Autonomous Automobile Path Tracking,” Pittsburgh: Robotics Institute, 2009.
- Rajamani, R., Vehicle Dynamics and Control, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2005.
- Kim, H., and Yi, K., “Combined throttle and brake control for vehicle cruise control: a model free approach,” IEEE Intelligent Vehicle Symposium (IV), 2013, doi:10.1109/IVS.2013.6629574