This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - AFR and EGR Dilution Effects
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 29, 2015 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions while maintaining durability. Transforming part of the vehicle fleet to NG is a path to reduce dependence on crude oil.
Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe. But this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
In this work, a single cylinder engine with 14:1 compression ratio (CR) was used to investigate spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) NG combustion using an integrated spark injector-igniter. Two parameters controlling dilution were investigated (i) increased air charge resulting in an increased air-fuel ratio (AFR) and (ii) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The impact of these parameters on fuel consumption, combustion stability, phasing, knock, and emissions of NOx, HC, CO is investigated and reported in this work. Partially stratified combustion (PSC) SOI and SPK timings from previous work will be used as a starting point to investigate the effects. Overall, both AFR and EGR were effective in controlling knock and NOx emissions; however, EGR required lower levels to obtain the desired effect. The use of charge dilution in the PSC range showed promise of trading off knock and combustion stability to within acceptable limits, thus demonstrating potential for increased load operation.
CitationZoldak, P. and Naber, J., "Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - AFR and EGR Dilution Effects," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2808, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2808.
- https://www.sae.org/ohmag/features/mahlechart/mahlechart.pdf Mahle Powertrain April 2015
- Das , L.M. , Gulati , R. , Gupta , P.K. A Comparative Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of a Spark Ignition Engine Using Hydrogen and Compressed Natural Gas As Alternative Fuels International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 25 2000 783 793 10.1016/S0360-3199(99)00103-2
- Kalam , M.A. , Masjuki , H.H. An Experimental Investigation Of High Performance Natural Gas engine With Direct Injection Journal of Energy 36 3563 3571 2011
- Mohamad , T. , Yusoff , A. , Abdullah , S. , Jermy , M. et al. The Combustion and Performance of a Converted Direct Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine using Spark Plug Fuel Injector SAE Technical Paper 2010-32-0078 2010 10.4271/2010-32-0078
- Douailler , B. , Ravet , F. , Delpech , V. , Soleri , D. et al. Direct Injection of CNG on High Compression Ratio Spark Ignition Engine: Numerical and Experimental Investigation SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0923 2011 10.4271/2011-01-0923
- Zoldak , P. , John Joseph , J. , Shelley , W. , Johnson , J. et al. Characterization of Partially Stratified Direct Injection of Natural Gas for Spark-Ignited Engines SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0937 2015 10.4271/2015-01-0937
- Yu , J. , Vuorinen , V. , Hillamo , H. , Sarjovaara , T. et al. An Experimental Study on High Pressure Pulsed Jets for DI Gas Engine Using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1655 2012 10.4271/2012-01-1655
- Yu , J. , Hillamo , H. , Sarjovaara , T. , Hulkkonen , T. et al. Experimental Study on Structure and Mixing of Low-Pressure Gas Jet Using Tracer-Based PLIF Technique SAE Technical Paper 2011-24-0039 2011 10.4271/2011-24-0039
- Rubas , P. , Paul , M. , Martin , G. , Coverdill , R. et al. Methane Jet Penetration in a Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine SAE Technical Paper 980143 1998 10.4271/980143
- Zoldak , P. and Naber , J. Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Engine - Start of Injection and Spark Timing Effects SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2813 2015 10.4271/2015-01-2813