This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Simulation of Ice Particle Melting in the NRCC RATFac Mixed-Phase Icing Tunnel
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 15, 2015 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Ice crystals ingested by a jet engine at high altitude can partially melt and then accrete within the compressor, potentially causing performance loss, damage and/or flameout. Several studies of this ice crystal icing (ICI) phenomenon conducted in the RATFac (Research Altitude Test Facility) altitude chamber at the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) have shown that liquid water is required for accretion. CFD-based tools for ICI must therefore be capable of predicting particle melting due to heat transfer from the air warmed by compression and possibly also due to impact with warm surfaces. This paper describes CFD simulations of particle melting and evaporation in the RATFac icing tunnel for the former mechanism, conducted using a Lagrangian particle tracking model combined with a stochastic random walk approach to simulate turbulent dispersion. Inter-phase coupling of heat and mass transfer is achieved with the particle source-in-cell method. Predictions are compared to turbulence measurements and measurements of total-water and liquid-water content (TWC, LWC) obtained with iso-kinetic and SEA multi-element probes respectively. They are also compared to measured changes in air temperature and humidity ratio resulting from particle evaporation and melting. Good agreement is obtained for these changes under (low pressure) conditions where they are large and interphase heat/mass coupling is very significant. Predicted LWC levels bracket the SEA measurements at low values but are much greater at higher LWC. These predictions suggest that the critical LWC/TWC range for ICI accretion may be higher than previously inferred from SEA measurements.
CitationCurrie, T., Fuleki, D., and Davison, C., "Simulation of Ice Particle Melting in the NRCC RATFac Mixed-Phase Icing Tunnel," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2107, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2107.
- Aircraft and Engine Certification Requirements for Supercooled Large Drop, Mixed Phase and Ice Crystal Icing Conditions, Federal Aviation Administration Docket No. FAA-2010-0636, Amendment Nos. 25-140 and 33-34, Nov. 4, 2014
- Struk, P., Currie, T., Wright, W., Knezevici, D. et al., “Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-38-0018, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-38-0018.
- Currie, T., Struk, P.M., Tsao, J-C., Fuleki, D. et al., “Fundamental Study of Mixed-Phase Icing with Application to Ice Crystal Accretion in Aircraft Jet Engines”, 4th Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New Orleans, Louisiana, AIAA 2012-3035
- Currie, T.C., Fuleki, D., Knezevici, D.C. and MacLeod, J.D., “Altitude Scaling of Ice Crystal Accretion”, 5th Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, San Diego, CA, AIAA 2013-2677
- Currie, T.C., Fuleki, D. and Mahallati, A., “Experimental Studies of Mixed-Phase Sticking Efficiency for Ice Crystal Accretion in Jet Engines”, 6th Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Atlanta, GA, AIAA 2014-3049
- Kintea, D.M., Schremb, M., Roisman, I.V. and Tropea, C., “Numerical Investigation of Ice Particle Accretion on Heated Surfaces with Application to Aircraft Engines”, 6th Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Atlanta, GA, AIAA 2014-2820
- Vargas, M., Struk, P.M., Kreeger, R.E. and Palacios, J., “Ice Particle Impacts on a Moving Wedge”, 6th Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Atlanta, GA, AIAA 2014-3045
- Hauk, T., Roisman, I. and Tropea, C., “Investigation of the Impact Behavior of Ice Particles”, 6th Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Atlanta, GA, AIAA 2014-3046
- Kintea, D.M., Hauk, T., Breitenbach, J., Roisman, I.V. and Tropea, C., “Oblique Water Entry of Rigid Spheres”, ILASS-Europe 2014, 26th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, 8-10 Sept. 2014, Bremen, Germany
- Hauk, T., Roisman, I. and Tropea, C., “Investigation of the Melting Behavior of Ice Particles in an Acoustic Levitator”, 6th Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Atlanta, GA, AIAA 2014-2261
- Fuleki, D.M., Mahallati, A., Knezevici, D.C., Currie, T.C. et al., “Development and Application of a Sensor for Total Temperature and Humidity Measurements under Mixed-Phase and Glaciated Icing Conditions”, 6th Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Atlanta, GA, AIAA 2014-2751
- Davison, C., Ratvasky, T., and Lilie, L., “Naturally Aspirating Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe: Wind Tunnel Test Results and Design Modifications,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-38-0036, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-38-0036.
- Mason, J. G., Strapp, J. W. and Chow, P., “The Ice Particle Threat to Engines in Flight”, 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, AIAA 2006-206, 2006
- Currie, T.C., “Modified Flux-Difference Splitting for Simulating Low Mach Number Flows, Including Combustion, on Unstructured Grids”, AIAA-98-0230, 1998
- Roe, P.L., “Approximate Riemann Solvers, Parameter Vectors and Difference Schemes”, J. Comp. Phys., Vol. 43, No. 2, 1981, pp. 357-372
- Rogers, S.E., Chang, J.L.C. and Kwak, D., “A Diagonal Algorithm for the Method of Pseudo-Compressibility”, J. Comp. Phys., 73(2), 1987
- Jones, W.P. and Launder, B.E., “The Prediction of Laminarisation with a Two-Equation Turbulence Model”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 15, 1972, p.301
- Menter, F.R., Kuntz, M. and Langtry, R., “Ten Years of Industrial Experience with the SST Turbulence Model”, Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer 4, eds. Hanjalic, K., Nagano, Y. and Tummers, M., Begell House Inc., 2003
- Menter, F.R., “Zonal Two-Equation k-w Turbulence Models for Aerodynamic Flows”, AIAA 93-2906, 1993
- Roe, P.L., “Characteristic-Based Schemes for the Euler Equations”, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., Vol. 18, 1986, pp. 337-365
- Conde, M., “Thermophysical Properties of Humid Air: Models and Background”, http:/www.mrc-eng.com/Downloads/Moist%20Air%20Props%20English.pdf
- Ouellette, N.T., Xu, H. and Bodenschatz, E., “A Quantitative Study of Three-Dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking Algorithms”, Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 40, 2006, pp. 301-313
- Schiller, L.; Naumann, A.Z., “Uber die grundlegenden Berechungen bei der Schwerkraftaufbereitung”, Ver. Deut. Ing. 77, 1933, pp.318-320
- Milojevic, D., “Lagrangian Stochastic-Deterministic (LSD) Prediction of Particle Dispersion in Turbulence”, Part. Syst. Charact., 7, 1990, pp. 181-190
- Klose, G., Rembold, B., Koch, R. and Wittig, S., “Comparison of State-of-the-Art Droplet Turbulence Interaction Models for Jet Engine Combustor Conditions”, Int. Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 22(3), 2001, pp. 343-349
- Knezevici, D., Fuleki, D., and MacLeod, J., “Development and Commissioning of a Linear Compressor Cascade Rig for Ice Crystal Research,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-38-0079, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-38-0079.
- Guegan, P., Othman, R., Lebreton, D., Pasco, F., Villedieu, P. and Meyssonnier, J., Wintenberger, S., “Experimental Investigation of the Kinematics of Post-Impact Ice Fragments”, Int. Journal of Impact Engineering, 38(10), 2011, pp. 786-795
- Libbrecht, K., “http://www.its.caltech.edu/∼atomic/snowcrystals/ice/ice.htm”
- Whitaker, S., “Forced Convection Heat Transfer Correlations for Flow in Pipes, Past Flat Plates, Single Cylinders, Single Spheres, and for Flow in Packed Beds and Tube Bundles”, AIChE J., Vol. 18., 1972, pp. 361-371
- Fuleki, D.M. and MacLeod, J.D., “Ice Crystal Accretion Test Rig Development for a Compressor Transition Duct”, AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2-5 Aug. 2010, AIAA 2010-7529
- Holzer, A. and Sommerfeld, M. “New Simple Correlation Formula for the Drag Coefficient of Non-Spherical Particles”, Powder Technology, Vol. 184, 2008
- Richter, A. and Nikrityuk, P.A., “Drag Forces and Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spherical, Cuboidal and Ellipsoidal Particles in Cross Flow at Sub-Critical Reynolds Numbers”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2012
- Crowe, C.T., Sharma, M.P., Stock, D.E., “The Particle-Source-in-Cell (PSI-CELL) Model for Gas Droplet Flows”, J. Fluids Eng., 99(2), June 1977, pp. 325-332
- Zhang, Z. and Chen, Q., “Experimental Measurements and Numerical Simulations of Particle Transport and Distribution in Ventilated Rooms”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 18, 2006, pp. 3396-3408
- Knezevici, Daniel C., Fuleki, Dan, Currie, Tom C., Galeote, Brian et al., “Particle Size Effects on Ice Crystal Accretion - Part II”, 5th Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, San Diego, CA, AIAA 2013-2676
- Struk, P. M., Bencic, T., Tsao, J., Fuleki, D. et al., “Preparation for Scaling Studies of Ice-Crystal Icing at the NRC Research Altitude Test Facility”, AIAA-2013-2675 and NASA/TM-2013-216571, 2013, doi:10.2514/6.2013-2675.
- Personal communication from P.M Struk, 2012
- Maunus, J., Grace, S., Sondak, D. et al., “Characteristics of Turbulence in a Turbofan Stage”, ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 135, March 2013
- Han, Y.H., George, W.K. and Hjarne, J., “Effect of a Contraction on Turbulence. Part I: Experiments”, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, AIAA 2005-1119, 2005
- Vaisala, 2014, “Humidity Calculator 3.1,” http://www.vaisala.com/.
- Strapp, J.W., Oldenburg, J., Ide, R., Lilie, L. et al., “Wind Tunnel Measurements of the Response of Hot-Wire Liquid Water Content Instruments to Large Droplets”, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 20, June 2003, pp. 791-806