This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Primary Ice Detection Certification Under the New FAA and EASA Regulations
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 15, 2015 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Aircraft icing has been a focus of the aviation industry for many years. While regulations existed for the certification of aircraft and engine ice protection systems (IPS), no FAA or EASA regulations pertaining to certification of ice detection systems existed for much of this time. Interim policy on ice detection systems has been issued through the form of AC 20-73A as well as FAA Issue Papers and EASA Certification Review Items to deal mainly with Primary Ice Detection Systems. A few years ago, the FAA released an update to 14 CFR 25.1419 through Amendment 25-129 which provided the framework for the usage of ice detection systems on aircraft.
As a result of the ATR-72 crash in Roselawn, Indiana due to Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) along with the Air France Flight 447 accident and numerous engine flame-outs due to ice crystals, both the FAA and EASA have developed new regulations to address these concerns. These new regulations are focused on aircraft-level ice protection certification and do not require a new type of ice detection technology. However, they do imply the need for ice detection systems which can detect and differentiate 14 CFR Part 25 Appendix C from Appendix O (SLD) as well as the ability to detect and differentiate Part 25 Appendix C or O from 14 CFR Part 33 Appendix D (ice crystals).
To meet these evolving industry needs, many new ice accretion and icing conditions detector technologies are being developed. Designing an ice detection system which has the sensitivity to detect and differentiate these different types of icing environments can be challenging enough, but integration with the aircraft systems, installation effects and freezing fraction differences between the ice detector technology and the aircraft surface of interest must be considered as well. This paper will review the regulation changes that impact ice detection system design and certification and discuss the necessary analyses and testing required to demonstrate the ability of ice detection technologies to meet these requirements and achieve successful Primary Ice Detection System certification.
CitationJackson, D., "Primary Ice Detection Certification Under the New FAA and EASA Regulations," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2105, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2105.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Jackson, D. and Goldberg, J., “Ice Detection Systems: A Historical Perspective,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-3325, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-3325.
- “General Specification for Aircraft Engines and Airframe Air Intake Duct Ice Detector” MIL-D-8181B, March 1965 and SAE AS8181, Aug. 1997.
- SAE International Aerospace Information Report, “Aircraft Ice Detectors and Icing Rate Measuring Instruments” SAE Standard AIR4367, Issued April 1995.
- FAA In-Flight Ice Detection Sensing Systems Policy Memo, July 9, 1986.
- “In-Flight Icing Encounter and Loss of Control Simmons Airlines, d.b.a American Eagle Flight 4184Avions de Transport Regional (ATR) Model 72-212, N401AM, Roselawn, Indiana, October 31, 1994,” National Transportation Safety Board Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-96/02, PB96-910402.
- “Airworthiness Standards: Transport Category Airplanes”, Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 25.
- “Loss of Control on Go-around (Rejected Landing) Air Canada Canadair CL-600-2B19 C-FSKI Fredericton Airport, New Brunswick 16 December 1997,” Transportation Safety Board of Canada Aviation Occurrence Report A97H0011.
- Air France Flight 447 Investigation Report, Bureau d'Enquêtes et D'Analyses, July 2012.
- Mason, J.G., Strapp, J.W., Chow, P., “The Ice Particle Threat to Engines in Flight,” AIAA-2006-206.
- “Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines”, Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 33.
- “Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Large Aeroplanes”, EASA CS-25.
- SAE International Aerospace Stardard, “Minimum Operational Performance Specification for In-Flight Icing Detection Systems,” SAE and EUROCAE ED- 103 and SAEAS5498, Reaf. Dec. 2009.
- “Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations”, Title 14 Code of Federal Regulation Part 121.
- Cronin, D.J, et. al. “Numerical Analysis of a BFG Ice Detector Location for the Learjet 45”, 1999 SAE General, Corporate & Regional Aviation Meeting and Exposition, 1999-01-1572.
- Boutanios Z., Bourgault Y., et al, “3-D Droplets Impingement Analysis Around an Aircraft's Nose and Cockpit Using FENSAP-ICE”, AIAA-98-0200.
- “Task 2 Working Group Report on Supercooled Large Droplet Rulemaking” Ice Protection Harmonization Working Group, Rev A, Dec. 2005.
- Jackson, D.G., Cronin, D.J., Severson, J.A., Owens, D.G., “Ludlam Limit Considerations on Cylinder Ice Accretion: Aerodynamics and Thermodynamics,” AIAA-2001-0679.
- Jackson, D.G., Owens, D.G., Cronin, D.J., Severson, J.A., “Certification and Integration Aspects of a Primary Ice Detection System,” AIAA-2001-0398.
- Severson, J., “Considerations When Performing Icing Wind Tunnel Testing to Determine Critical Temperature,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2120, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-2120.
- Jackson, D., Liao, J. and Severson, J., “An Assessment of Goodrich Ice Detector Performance in Various Icing Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2115, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-2115.
- Cober, S.G., Korolev, A.V., Isaac, G.A., “Assessing Characteristics of the Rosemount Icing Detector Under Natural Icing Conditions,” AIAA-2001-0397.
- Biter, C.J., Dye, J.E., Huffman, D., King, W.D., “the Drop-Size Response of the CSIRO Liquid Water Probe,” J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol 4, Sept. 1987, pp 359-367.
- Strapp, J.W., Korolev, et. al., “Wind Tunnel Measurements of the Response of Hot Wire Liquid Water Content Instruments to Large Droplets,” J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol 20, June 2003, pp 791-805.
- Heymsfield, A.J. and Miloshevich, L.M., “Evaluation of Liquid Water Measuring Instruments in Cold Clouds Sampled during FIRE,” J. of Atmos. and Oceanic Tech., Vol. 6, June 1989, p. 378-388.
- Strapp, J.W., et. al., “Cloud Microphysical Measurements in Thunderstorm Outflow Regions During Allied/BAE 1997 Flight Trials,” AIAA 99-0498.
- “Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment”, RTCA DO-160G, December 8, 2010.
- Cook, D. E., “Maximum Temperature for Ice Accumulation Calculations,” AIAA-2005-0655.
- “Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems,” ARP-4761.
- “Guidelines for the Development of Civil Aviation Aircraft and Systems”, ARP-4754A, Dec 2010.
- “Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification”, RTCA DO-178C, December 13, 2011.
- “Design Assurance Guideline for Airborne Electronic Hardware”, RTCA DO-254, April 19, 2000.
- Results of Lufthansa German Airlines B-727 Flight Test of Rosemount Ice Detector,” Lufthansa German Airlines and Rosemount Inc., December 1, 1981.