This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Field-based Assessments of Various AIS2+ Head Risk Curves for Frontal Impact
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2015 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
In the present study, various risk curves for moderate-to-fatal head injury (AIS2+) were theoretically assessed by comparing model-based injury rates with field-based injury rates. This was accomplished by applying the risk curves in corresponding field models. The resulting injury rates were considered from two perspectives: aggregate (0-56 kph events) and point-estimate (higher-speed, barrier-like events).
Four risk curves were studied: a HIC15-based curve from Mertz et al. (1997), a BRIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2011), a BrIC-based curve from Takhounts et al. (2013) and a Concussion-Correlate-based curve from Rowson et al. (2013).
The field modeling pertained to adult drivers in 11-1 o'clock, towaway, full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS, calendar years = 1993-2012), and the model-year range of the passenger vehicles was 1985-2010. The attendant inhomogeneity of the restraint systems was approximated by four representative systems.
Prior to the field modeling, base models were developed and validated to acceptable levels. Specifically, there were seven assessments of head-impact tests (avg PctDiff = 5.2%) and nine assessments of representative restraint-system models relative to fleet-wide tests (avg PctDiff = 5.0% relative to fleet medians).
Subsequently, 36 comparisons were conducted via the field modeling relative to NASS (i.e., four curves and nine aggregate/point assessments). On average, the Concussion-Correlate-based curve demonstrated the best fidelity from the aggregate perspective (+7% difference), with the following rank ordering: Concussion Correlate, HIC15, BRIC, and BrIC. As for the point-estimate perspective, the HIC15 curve demonstrated the best fidelity (−26% difference), rank ordered as HIC15, Concussion Correlate, BRIC, and BrIC. The data underlying these results indicated that more study is needed to improve the fidelity of curve-based risk estimation.
CitationLaituri, T., El-Jawahri, R., Henry, S., and Sullivan, K., "Field-based Assessments of Various AIS2+ Head Risk Curves for Frontal Impact," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1437, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1437.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
|Unnamed Dataset 2|
- Compton , C. 1993 The Use of Public Crash Data in Biomechanical Research Accidental Injury: Biomechanics and Prevention Nahum A. and Melvin J. 49 65
- El-jawahri , R. , Laituri , T. , Kim , A. , Rouhana , S. et al. Finite-Element-Based Transfer Equations: Post-Mortem Human Subjects versus Hybrid III Test Dummy in Blunt Impact SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 2 1 117 129 2014 10.4271/2014-01-0486
- Gadd , C. 1962 Criteria for Injury Potential in Impact Impact Acceleration Stress Symposium National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council
- Gennarelli , T. , Ommaya A. , and Thibault , L. 1971 Comparison of Translational and Rotational Head Motions in Experimental Cerebral Concussion Proceedings of the 15 th Stapp Car Crash Conference 797 803 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Gennarelli , T. , Thibault , L. , and Ommaya , A. 1972 Pathophysiologic Responses to Rotational and Linear Accelerations of the Head Proceedings of the 16 th Stapp Car Crash Conference 296 308 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Gennarelli , T. , Adams , J. , and Graham , D. 1981 Acceleration Induced Head Injury in the Monkey: The Model, Its Mechanistic and Physiological Correlates Acta Neuropathol. Suppl. 7 23 25
- Gennarelli , T. , Thibault , L. , Adams , J. , Graham , D. , Thompson , C. , and Marcincin , R. 1982 Diffuse Axonal Injury and Traumatic Coma in the Primate Ann Neurol. 12 564 574
- Gennarelli , T. and Thibault , L. 1982 Biomechanics of Acute Subdural Hematoma J. Trauma. 22 680 686
- Gurdjian , E. and Webster , J. 1945 Linear Acceleration causing Shear in the Brain Stem in Trauma of the Central Nervous System Mental Advances in Disease 24 28
- Gurdjian , E. , Webster , J. , and Lissner , H. 1955 Observations on the Mechanism of Brain Concussion, Contusion and Laceration Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 101 680 690
- Gurdjian , E. , Lissner , H. , and Evans , F. 1961 Intracranial Pressure and Acceleration Accompanying Head Impacts in Human Cadavers Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics 112 185 190
- Gurdjian , E. , Lissner H. , and Patrick , L. 1963 Concussion-Mechanism and Pathology Proceedings of the 7 th Stapp Car Crash Conference 470 482 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale
- Hardy , W. , Khalil T , and King , A. 1994 Literature Review of Head Injury Biomechanics Int J Impact Eng. 15 561 586
- Hardy , W. , Foster , C. , Mason , M. , Yang , K. , King , A. , and Tashman , S. 2001 Investigation of Head Injury Mechanisms using Neutral Density Technology and High-speed Biplanar X-ray Proceedings of the 45 th Stapp Car Crash Conference 337 368 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Hardy , W. , Mason , M. , Foster , C. , Shah , C. , Kopacz , J. , Yang , K. , King , A. , Bishop , J. , Bey , M. , Anderst , W. , Tashman , S. 2007 A Study of the Response of the Human Cadaver Head to Impact Stapp Car Crash Journal 51 17 80
- Holbourn , A. 1943 Mechanics of Head Injuries Lancet ii 438 441
- Karton , C. , Hoshizaki , T. , and Gilchrist , M. 2014 The Influence of Impactor Mass on the Dynamic Response of the Hybrid III Headform and Brain Tissue Deformation Mechanism of Concussion in Sports ASTM International
- Laituri , T. , Kachnowski , B. , Prasad , P. , Sullivan , K. et al. A Theoretical, Risk Assessment Procedure for In-Position Drivers Involved in Full-Engagement Frontal Impacts SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1354 2003 10.4271/2003-01-1354
- Lissner , H. , Lebow , M. , and Evans , F. 1960 Experimental Studies on the Relation between Acceleration and Intracranial Pressure Changes in Man Surgery, Gynecology, Obstetrics 111 329 338
- Mertz , H. , Prasad , P. , and Nusholtz , G. HEAD INJURY RISK ASSESSMENT FOR FOREHEAD IMPACTS SAE Technical Paper 960099 1996 10.4271/960099
- Mertz , H. , Prasad , P. , and Irwin , A. 1997 Injury Risk Curves for Children and Adults in Frontal and Rear Collisions Proceedings of the 41 st Stapp Car Crash Conference 13 30 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Newman , J. , Shewchenko , N. , and Welbourne , E. 2000 A Proposed New Biomechanical Head Injury Assessment Function - The Maximum Power Index Stapp Car Crash Journal 44 362 395
- Ommaya A. 1985 Biomechanics of Head Injury: Experimental Aspects The Biomechanics of Trauma Nahum A.M. and Melvin J.W. 245 269
- Prasad , P. and Mertz , H. The Position of the United States Delegation to the ISO Working Group 6 on the Use of HIC in the Automotive Environment SAE Technical Paper 851246 1985 10.4271/851246
- Rowson , S. and Duma , S. 2013 Brain Injury Prediction: Assessing the Combined Probability of Concussion using Linear and Rotational Head Acceleration Annals of Biomedical Engineering
- Sanchez-Molina , D. , Velazquez-Ameijide , J. , Arregui-Dalmases , C. Crandall , J. and Untaroiu , C. 2012 Minimization of Analytical Injury Metrics for Head Impact Injuries Traffic Injury Prevention 13 3 278 285
- Takhounts , E. , Hasija , V. , Ridella , S. , Rowson , S , Duma , S. 2011 Kinematic Rotational Brain Injury Criterion (BRIC) Proceeding of the 22 nd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles
- Takhounts , E. , Craig , M. , Moorhouse , K. , McFadden , J. , and Hasija , V. 2013 Development of Brain Injury Criteria (BrIC) Stapp Car Crash Journal 57 243 266
- Ueno , K. , Melvin , J. 1995 Finite Element Model Study of Head Impact based on Hybrid III Head Acceleration: The Effects of Rotational and Translational Acceleration J. Biomechanical Engineering 117 3 319 328
- Versace , J. 1971 A Review of the Severity Index Proceedings of the 15 th Stapp Car Crash Conference 771 796 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Viano , D. , Melvin , J. , McCleary , J. , Madeira , R. et al. Measurement of Head Dynamics and Facial Contact Forces In the Hybrid III Dummy SAE Technical Paper 861891 1986 10.4271/861891
- King , A. , Yang , K. , Zhang , L. , Hardy , W. , and Viano , D. 2003 Is Head Injury caused by Linear or Angular Acceleration? IRCOBI Conference 1 11