This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Influence of Fuel PM Index and Ethanol Content on Particulate Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2015 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The EPAct/V2/E-89 gasoline fuel effects program collected emissions data for 27 test fuels using a fleet of 15 high-sales cars and light trucks from the 2008 model year (all with port fuel injection). The test fuel matrix covered values of T50, T90, vapor pressure, ethanol content, and total aromatic content spanning ranges typical of market gasolines. Emission measurements were made over the LA92 cycle at a nominal temperature of 24°C (75°F). The resulting emissions database of 956 tests includes a particulate matter (PM) mass measurement for each. Emission models for PM fuel effects were fit based on terms for which the fuel matrix was originally optimized, with results published by EPA in a 2013 analysis report.
This paper presents results of a subsequent modeling analysis of this PM data using the PM Index fuel parameter, and compares these models to the original versions. Two related observations of interest are also discussed: the first is a significant reinforcing interaction between ethanol and PM Index; the second is the wide variation in sensitivity of PM emissions to fuel parameters across the 15 vehicles in the test fleet, indicating that fuel interacts in important ways with engine and vehicle design characteristics, calibrations, and control algorithms.
CitationButler, A., Sobotowski, R., Hoffman, G., and Machiele, P., "Influence of Fuel PM Index and Ethanol Content on Particulate Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1072, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1072.
- Storey, J., Barone, T., Norman, K., and Lewis, S., “Ethanol Blend Effects On Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):650-659, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2129.
- Storey, J., Barone, T., Thomas, J., and Huff, S., “Exhaust Particle Characterization for Lean and Stoichiometric DI Vehicles Operating on Ethanol-Gasoline Blends,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0437, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0437.
- Maricq M., Szente J., and Jahr K., “The Impact of Ethanol Fuel Blends on PM Emissions from a Light-Duty GDI Vehicle”, Aerosol Science and Technology, 46: 576-583, 2012.
- Vuk, C. and Vander Griend, S., “Fuel Property Effects on Particulates In Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1124, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-1124.
- Kobashi, Y., Kimoto, Y., and Kato, S., “Experimental Validation of a Droplet Vaporization Model for Ethanol-Blended Fuels and its Application to Spray Simulation,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2733, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2733.
- Chen, L., Braisher, M., Crossley, A., Stone, R. et al., “The Influence of Ethanol Blends on Particulate Matter Emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0793, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0793.
- Stone R., Chen L., Hinton N., Leach F. et al., “GDI Engine Operation with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends and Aqueous Ethanol”, Journal of Automotive Safety and Energy, 2012, Vol. 3, No. 3.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Assessing the Effect of Five Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles Certified to Tier 2 Standards: Analysis of Data from EPAct Phase 3 (EPAct/V2/E-89). Document number EPA-420-R-13-002.
- Aikawa, K., Sakurai, T., and Jetter, J., “Development of a Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):610-622, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2115.
- Anderson, J., Wallington, T., Stein, R., and Studzinski, W., “Issues with T50 and T90 as Match Criteria for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(3):1027-1040, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-9080.
- Sobotowski, R., Butler, A., and Guerra, Z., “A Pilot Study of Fuel Impacts on PM Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 8(1):2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-9071.
- Rutherford, J., Koehl, W., Benson, J., Burns, V. et al., “Effects of Gasoline Properties on Emissions of Current and Future Vehicles - T50, T90, and Sulfur Effects - Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program,” SAE Technical Paper 952510, 1995, doi:10.4271/952510.
- Coordinating Research Council, Inc., report number E-67, “Effects of Ethanol and Volatility Parameters on Exhaust Emissions,” Alpharetta, GA, January 2006.
- Coordinating Research Council, Inc., report number E-74b, “Effects of Vapor Pressure, Oxygen Content, and Temperature on CO Exhaust Emissions,” Alpharetta, GA, May 2009.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPAct/V2/E-89: Assessing the Effect of Five Gasoline Properties on Exhaust Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles Certified to Tier 2 Standards: Final Report on Program Design and Data Collection. Document number EPA-420-R-13-004.
- Christianson, M., Bardasz, E., and Nahumck, W., “Impact of Lubricating Oil Condition on Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):476-488, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1560.