This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests
Published November 10, 2014 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors.
The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens.
The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection.
For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum forces appeared to be a function of the total body mass for each loading angle.
CitationBaudrit, P., Petitjean, A., Potier, P., Trosseille, X. et al., "Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests," SAE Technical Paper 2014-22-0004, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-22-0004.
- Charpail , E. , Trosseille , X. , Petit , P. , Laporte , S. , Lavaste , F. , Vallancien , G. 2005 Characterization of PMHS ribs: a new test methodology Stapp Car Crash Journal 49 183 198
- Crandall , J.R. , Bass , C.R. , Duma , S.M. , Kuppa , S.M. 1998 Evaluation of 5 th percentile female Hybrid III thoracic biofidelity during out-of-position tests with a driver air bag SAE paper 980636
- Daniel , R.P. , Irwin , A. , Athey , J. , Balser , J. , Eichbrecht , P. , Hultman , R.W. , Kirkish , S. , Kneisly , A. , Mertz , H. , Nusholtz , G. , Rouhana , S. , Scherer , R. , Salloum , M. , Smrcka , J. 1995 Technical specifications of the SID-IIs dummy SAE paper 952735
- Harigae , T. , Ueno , M. , Sasaki , M. , Ohmae , H. 1998 Performance evaluation of impact responses of the SID-IIs small side impact dummy ESV conference
- Irwin , A.L. , Mertz , H.J. , Elhagediab , A.M. , Moss , S. 2002 Guidelines for assessing the biofidelity of side impact dummies of various sizes and ages Stapp Car Crash Journal 46 297 319
- Irwin , A.L. , Sutterfield , A. , Hsu , T.P. , Kim , A. , Mertz , H.J. , Rouhana , S.W. , Scherer , R. 2005 Side impact response corridors for the rigid flat-wall and offset-wall side impact tests of NHTSA using the ISO method of corridor development Stapp Car Crash Journal 49 423 456
- Irwin , A.L. , Mertz , H.J. 2010 Rationale for and dimensions of impact surfaces for biofidelity tests of different sizes of frontal and side impact dummies Stapp Car Crash Journal 54 19 35
- Kroell , C.K. , Schneider , D.C , Nahum , A.M. 1971 Impact Tolerance and Response of the Human Thorax Proc. 15 th Stapp Car Crash Conference 84 134 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Kroell , C.K. , Schneider , D.C , Nahum , A.M. 1974 Impact Tolerance and Response of the Human Thorax II Proc. 18 th Stapp Car Crash Conference 383 412 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Leport , T. , Baudrit , P. , Potier , P. , Trosseille , X. , Lecuyer , E. 2011 Study of rib fracture mechanisms based on the rib strain profiles in side and forward oblique impact Stapp Car Crash Journal 55 199 250
- Mertz . H.J. , Irwin , A.L. , Melvin , J.W. Stalnaker , R.L. , Beebe , M.S. 1989 Size, weight and biomechanical impact response requirements for adult size small female and large male dummies SAE paper 890756
- Neathery , R.F. Analysis of chest impact response data and scaled performance recommandations 1974 Proc. 18 th Stapp Car Crash Conference Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Rebiffé , R. , Guillien , J. , Pasquet , P. 1982 Enquête Anthropométrique sur les Conducteurs Français Laboratoire de physiologie et de biomécanique de l'association Peugeot-Renault France
- Schneider , L.W. , Robbins , D.H. , Pflüg , M.A. , and Snyder , R.G. 1985 Development of an Anthropometrically based Design Specifications for an Advanced Adult Anthropomorphic Dummy Family 1-3 Final Report DOT-HS-806-715 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration U.S. Department of Transportation Washington D.C.
- Shaw , J. M. , Herriott , R.G. , McFadden , J.D. , Donnelly , B.R. , Bolte , J.H. 2006 Oblique and Lateral Impact Response of the PMHS thorax Stapp Car Crash Journal 50 147 167
- Scherer , R.D. , Kirkish , S.L. , McCleary , J.P. , Rouhana , S.W. , Athey , J.B. , Balser , J.S. , Hultman , R.W. , Mertz , H.J. , Berliner , J.M. , Xu , L. , Kostynuik , G.W. , Salloum , M. , Wang , Z. , Morgan , C. 1998 SID-IIs Beta+- prototype dummy biomechanical responses Proc.42 nd Stapp Car Crash Conference Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA SAE paper 983151
- Trosseille , X. , Baudrit , P. , Leport , T. , Vallancien , G. 2008 Rib Cage Strain Pattern as a Function of Chest Loading Configuration Stapp Car Crash Journal 52 205 231
- Viano , D.C. 1989 Biomechanical responses and injuries in blunt lateral impact Proceedings of the 33 rd Stapp Car Crash Conference Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA