This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Tribological Behavior of Low Viscosity Lubricants in the Piston to Bore Zone of a Modern Spark Ignition Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 13, 2014 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Most major regional automotive markets have stringent legislative targets for vehicle greenhouse gas emissions or fuel economy enforced by fiscal penalties. Large improvements in vehicle efficiency on mandated test cycles have already taken place in some markets through the widespread adoption of technologies such as downsizing or dieselization. There is now increased focus on approaches which give smaller but significant incremental efficiency benefits such as reducing parasitic losses due to engine friction. Fuel economy improvements which achieve this through the development of advanced engine lubricants are very attractive to vehicle manufacturers due to their favorable cost-benefit ratio.
For an engine with components which operate predominantly in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime, the most significant lubricant parameter which can be changed to improve the tribological performance of the system is the lubricant viscosity. Low viscosity lubricants are increasingly being specified by vehicle manufacturers who are now more frequently working directly with the lubricant supplier to design fluids specific to their requirements. As lubricant viscosity grades far below those currently in the market are investigated it is vital that the detailed operating environment of the oil within specific engine components is properly understood. Losses in the piston / cylinder bore zone account for the largest portion of the overall engine friction. This paper investigates the tribological contact in this zone using advanced analytical techniques to predict the performance of two low viscosity lubricants. The relative contributions of hydrodynamic and boundary friction are resolved and the accuracy of the simulation is compared against motored engine test results.
CitationTaylor, O., Pearson, R., Stone, R., Carden, P. et al., "Tribological Behavior of Low Viscosity Lubricants in the Piston to Bore Zone of a Modern Spark Ignition Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2859, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-2859.
- King, J. “The King review of low-carbon cars, Part I: the potential for CO2 reduction”. HM Treasury. 2007. pp 45
- Ernst, C. S. “CO2 Reduction potentials for passenger cars until 2020” Management Summary 113510, Institute fur Kraftfahrzeuge, Aachen December 2012. www.bmwi.de/Publikationen accessed 22/March/2014
- Davison, E. and Haviland, M., “Lubricant Viscosity Effects on Passenger Car Fuel Economy,” SAE Technical Paper 750675, 1975, doi:10.4271/750675.
- Tanaka, H., Nagashima, T., Sato, T., and Kawauchi, S., “The Effect of 0W-20 Low Viscosity Engine Oil on Fuel Economy,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3468, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-3468.
- Manni, M. and Florio, S., “An Experimental Evaluation of the Impact of Ultra Low Viscosity Engine Oils on Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2566, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2566.
- Tamoto, Y., Kido, M., and Murata, H., “Possibilities of Ultra Low Viscosity Fuel Saving Gasoline Engine Oil,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1936, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-01-1936.
- Zuidema, H. H.”The performance of lubricating oils”. Pg1. Second Edition. Reinhold publishing corporation. 1959.
- Online article. http://www.oats-lrc.co.uk/innovation-news/article-871/ford-reveals-new-ecoboost-lubes-spec accessed 22/March/2014.
- Covitch, M., Brown, M., May, C., Selby, T. et al., “Extending SAE J300 to Viscosity Grades below SAE 20,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):1030-1040, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2286.
- Maassen, F.J. Dohmen, J. Pischinger, S. and Schwaderlapp, M. Engine friction reduction - design measures for reduced fuel consumption, MTZ July-August 2005.
- Richardson D. E. Review of power cylinder friction for diesel engines. ASME Paper No. 99-ICE-196, Spring technical conference 1999.
- ACEA European Oil Sequences. 2012. Available at www.acea.be
- Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System. API 1509 Seventeenth edition, September 2012. Available at www.api.org
- Devlin, M., Lam, W., and McDonnell, T., “Critical Oil Physical Properties that Control the Fuel Economy Performance of General Motors Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper 982503, 1998, doi:10.4271/982503.
- Moore, A., “Influences of Lubricant Properties on ASTM Sequence VI and Sequence VI-A Fuel Efficiency Performance,” SAE Technical Paper 961138, 1996, doi:10.4271/961138.
- Gangopadhyay, A., Sorab, J., Willermet, P., Schriewer, K. et al., “Prediction of ASTM Sequence VI and VIA Fuel Economy Based on Laboratory Bench Tests,” SAE Technical Paper 961140, 1996, doi:10.4271/961140.
- Styer, J. and Guinther, G., “Fuel Economy Beyond ILSAC GF-5: Correlation of Modern Engine Oil Tests to Real World Performance,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(3):1025-1033, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1618.
- Setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles'. Regulation (EC) 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, 23rd April 2009.
- E/ECE/324/Rev.1/Add.82/Rev.4 6.3.1. Available at www.unece.org
- Zuidema, H. H.”The performance of lubricating oils”. Second Edition. Reinhold publishing corporation. 1959. pp 32.
- SAE International Surface Vehicle Standard, “Engine Oil Viscosity Classification,” SAE Standard J300, Rev. March 2013.
- Gulwadi, S.D. Analysis of tribological performance of a piston ring pack. Tribology Transactions Volume 43, Issue 2, January 2000, pages 151-162.
- Perchanok, M., “Modeling of Piston-Cylinder Lubrication with a Flexible Skirt and Cylinder Wall,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2804, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-2804.
- Duyar, M., Bell, D., and Perchanok, M., “A Comprehensive Piston Skirt Lubrication Model Using a Mass Conserving EHL Algorithm,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1640, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-1640.
- Carden, P., Bell, D., Priest, M., and Barrell, D., “Piston Assembly Friction Losses: Comparison of Measured and Predicted Data,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0426, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-0426.
- Greenwood, J.A., Tripp, J.H. The contact of two nominally flat rough surfaces, Proceedings of IMechE, 185, pp625-633, 1970.
- Xin, Q. Diesel engine system design, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK, May 2011.
- Ogawa, T., Suzuki, T., Ezaki, S., Suzuki, T. et al., “Reduction of Friction Losses in Crankcase at High Engine Speeds,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3350, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-3350.
- Calabretta, M., Cacciatore, D., and Carden, P., “Valvetrain Friction - Modeling, Analysis and Measurement of a High Performance Engine Valvetrain System,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3(2):72-84, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-1492.
- Jackson R., Green I., “On the Modelling of Elastic Contact between Rough Surfaces” Tribology Transactions 54, STLE, 2011.
- Tomanik E. “Modelling the hydrodynamic support of cylinder bore and piston rings with laser textured surfaces”, Tribology International, March 2013.
- Private communication with the SAE J300 steering committee.