This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Experimental Validation of a Droplet Vaporization Model for Ethanol-Blended Fuels and its Application to Spray Simulation
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 13, 2014 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Ethanol is a promising alternative to fossil fuels because it can be made from biomass resources that are renewable. In the most cases, however, ethanol is blended with conventional fuels because of the limited amount of production. Ethanol-fuel blends are typically azeotropic and have a unique characteristic in vapor pressure and phase equilibrium, which is different from that of blends composed of simple aliphatic hydrocarbons.
The current studies by the authors have developed a numerical vaporization model for ethanol-gasoline blends, which takes into account vapor-liquid equilibrium of azeotrope and high latent heat of vaporization of ethanol, in order to update the authors' multicomponent fuel spray model and to investigate effects of blending ethanol on droplet vaporization processes.
In this paper, the developed vaporization model was validated through a comparison with experimentally-observed vaporization rate for single droplets of ethanol-n-heptane blends. The predicted results were in a good agreement with experimental data. The results also showed that the latent heat of vaporization of ethanol plays an important role in a droplet vaporization rate while the increase of the vapor pressure due to mixing ethanol has less effect and that consideration of the phase equilibrium composition is required to correctly predict the temporal change of the composition in a vaporizing droplet.
Finally, the developed vaporization model was incorporated into authors' multicomponent fuel spray model. The effects of liquid-vapor equilibrium of ethanol-n-heptane blends and the latent heat of vaporization of ethanol were evaluated for vaporizing fuel spray.
CitationKobashi, Y., Kimoto, Y., and Kato, S., "Experimental Validation of a Droplet Vaporization Model for Ethanol-Blended Fuels and its Application to Spray Simulation," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2733, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-2733.
- Rose, J. W. and Cooper, J. R., Technical Data on Fuel, Seventh edition, The British National Committee World Energy Conference, 1977.
- Poling, B. E., Prausnitz, J. M. and O'connell, J. P., The Properties of Gases and Liquids, Fifth edition, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
- Chato, M., Fukuda, S., Sato, K., Fujikawa, T. et al., “Fuel Spray Evaporation and Mixture Formation Processes of Ethanol/Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines 5(4):1836-1846, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-32-0018.
- Matsumoto, A., Moore, W., Lai, M., Zheng, Y. et al., “Spray Characterization of Ethanol Gasoline Blends and Comparison to a CFD Model for a Gasoline Direct Injector,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3(1):402-425, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0601.
- Gao, J., Jiang, D. and Huang, Z., “Spray Properties of Alternative Fuels: A Comparative Analysis of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends and Gasoline,” Fuel, Vol.86, pp. 1645-1650, 2007.
- Pumphrey, J. A., Brand, J. I. and Scheller, W. A., “Vapour Pressure Measurements and Predictions for Alcohol-Gasoline Blends,” Fuel 79:1405-1411, 2000.
- Neroorkar, K. and Schmidt, D., “Modeling of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Gasoline-Ethanol Blended Fuels for Flash Boiling Simulations,” Fuel, Vol.90, pp.665-673, 2011.
- Negro, S., Brusiani, F., and Bianchi, G., “A Numerical Model for Flash Boiling of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Fuel Injector Nozzles,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 4(2):237-256, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-24-0003.
- Jiao, Q., Ra, Y., and Reitz, R., “Modeling the Influence of Molecular Interactions on the Vaporization of Multi-component Fuel Sprays,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0387, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0387.
- Hallett, W. L. H. and Beauchamp-Kiss, S., “Evaporation of Single Droplets of Ethanol-Fuel Oil Mixtures,” Fuel, Vol.89, pp.2496-2504, 2010.
- Kawano, D., Senda, J., Wada, Y., Fujimoto, H. et al., “Numerical Simulation of Multicomponent Fuel Spray,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1838, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-01-1838.
- Kobashi, Y., Fujimori, K., Maekawa, H., Kato, S. et al., “Modeling of Auto-Ignition and Combustion Processes for Dual-Component Fuel Spray,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(2):2193-2206, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-24-0001.
- Kobashi, Y., Maekawa, H., Kato, S., and Senda, J., “Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(3):1404-1413, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-32-0031.
- Amsden, A. A., “KIVA3V: A Block-Structured KIVA Program for Engines with Vertical or Canted Valves,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-13313-MS, 1997.
- Kobashi, Y., Kimoto, Y., and Kato, S., “Numerical Simulation of Evaporating Sprays of Ethanol Fuel Blends,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2552, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2552.
- Ely, J. F. and Huber, M. L., “NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures Database User's Guide,” 1992.
- Abramzon, B. and Sirignano, W. A., “Droplet Vaporization Model for Spray Combustion Calculations,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol.32, No.9, pp.1605-1618, 1989.
- Curtis, E., Uludogan, A., and Reitz, R., “A New High Pressure Droplet Vaporization Model for Diesel Engine Modeling,” SAE Technical Paper 952431, 1995, doi:10.4271/952431.
- Kar, K., Last, T., Haywood, C., and Raine, R., “Measurement of Vapor Pressures and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Gasoline and Ethanol Blends and Their Effects on Mixture Preparation in an SI Engine,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 1(1):132-144, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-0317.
- Holderbaum, T. and Gmehling, J., “PSRK: A Group Contribution Equation of State Based on UNIFAC,” Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol.70, Issues 2-3, pp.251-265, 1991.
- Horstmann, S., Fischer, K. and Gmehling, J., “PSRK Group Contribution Equation of State: Revision and Extension III,” Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol.167, Issue 2, pp.173-186, 2000.
- Barro, C., Rogalski, M. and Peneloux, A., “A New Ebulliometric Technique. Vapour-Liquid Equilibria in the Binary Systems Ethanol-n-Heptane and Ethanol-n-Nonane,” Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol.8, Issue 1, pp.55-73, 1982.
- Janaszewski, B., Oracz, P., Goral, M. and Warycha, S., “Vapour-Liquid Equilibria. I. An Apparatus for Isothermal Total Vapour Pressure Measurements: Binary Mixtures of Ethanol and t-Butanol with n-hexane, n-heptane and n-octane at 313.15K,” Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol.9, Issue 3, pp.295-310, 1982.
- Scatchard, G. and Raymond, C. L., “Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium. II. Chloroform-Ethanol Mixtures at 35, 45 and 55°, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60 Chem. Soc., 60(6), pp.1278-1287, 1938.
- Enomoto, H., Sawasaki, S., Nishioka, K., and Mangalla, L., “Observation of Kerosene Droplet Evaporation under High Pressure and High Temperature Environment,” 2013.
- Enomoto, H., Kunioka, S., Mangalla, L., and Hieda, N., “Small Kerosene Droplet Evaporation Near Butane Diffusion Flame,” 2013.
- Otsu, N., “A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms,” IEEE Transactions of Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. SMC-9, No.1, pp.62-65, 1979.