This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Optimal Control Allocation for Electric Aircraft Taxi Systems: A Preliminary Study
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 16, 2014 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Demonstrators and research projects about electric aircraft taxi systems testify the current interest in low- or zero-emission ground propulsion technologies to lower the overall fuel consumption and emissions of commercial flights. Electric motors fitted in the main landing gears are one of the most promising layouts for these systems especially for narrow-body commercial aircraft. From a control theory point of view, the aircraft on ground becomes an over-actuated plant through adoption of this technology, i.e. a commanded ground trajectory can be reached through different combinations of actuator efforts. A strategy is required to choose the most suitable of these combinations in order to reach the best efficiency. This work aims to investigate a strategy for an optimal control allocation during path-following of prescribed ground trajectories. While the most obvious contributor to the optimizing cost function is energy efficiency, other aspects need to be considered such as the thermal behavior of the electric motors, the availability of energy storage systems resulting in a certain possible amount of regenerative braking, and other technical and normative constraints. Preliminary simulations of trajectory tracking based on the presented concept are shown.
CitationRe, F., "Optimal Control Allocation for Electric Aircraft Taxi Systems: A Preliminary Study," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2137, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-2137.
- Schürmann, Schäfer, Jahn, Hoffmann, Bauerfeind, Fleuti, and Rappenglück, “The impact of NOx, CO and VOC emissions on the air quality of Zurich airport”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 41, pp. 103-118, 2007. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.07.030
- Graham, “Managing Airports: An international perspective”, 3rd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, 2008.
- “Sesar Definition Phase - Deliverable D1 - Air Transport Framework, The Current Situation,” July 2006.
- Bureau of Transportation Statistics Special Report, “Sitting on the Runway: Current Aircraft Taxi Times Now Exceed Pre-9/11 Experience”, U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Innovative Technology Administration, May 2008.
- Deonandan and Balakrishnan, “Evaluation of Strategies for Reducing Taxi-out Emissions at Airports,” in Proceedings of the AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, September 2010.
- Airbus Customer Services Manual, “Flight Operations Support & Line Assistance: Getting to Grips with Fuel Economy,” July 2004.
- Re, “Viability and State of the Art of Environmentally Friendly Aircraft Taxiing Systems,” International Conference for on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS), Bologna, Italy, October 16th-18th, 2012. DOI:10.1109/ESARS.2012.6387462
- Isermann: Fahrdynamik-Regelung. ATZ/MTZ-Fachbuch. Vieweg+Teubner (2006)
- Re, F., “Assessing Environmental Benefits of Electric Aircraft Taxiing through Object-Oriented Simulation,” SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 5(2):503-512, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-2218.
- Raminosoa, Hamiti, Galea, and Gerada, “Feasibility and Electromagnetic Design of Direct Drive Wheel Actuator for Green Taxiing,” in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2011.
- Staton and Cavagnino, “Convection Heat Transfer and Flow Calculations Suitable for Electric Machines Thermal Models”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 10, October 2008.
- Faulwasser, Kern, and Findeisen, “Model Predictive Path-Following for Constrained nonlinear Systems”, Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, Shanghai, P.R.China, December 16-18, 2009.
- Houska, Ferreau, and Diehl, “ACADO Toolkit - An Open-Source Framework for Automatic Control and Dynamic Optimization”, Optimal Control Applications and Methods, vol. 32 no. 3, 298-312, 2011.