This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Use of a PPS Sensor in Evaluating the Impact of Fuel Efficiency Improvement Technologies on the Particle Emissions of a Euro 5 Diesel Car
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 01, 2014 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The effect of “Start & Stop” and “Gear Shift Indicator” - two widespread fuel saving technologies - on fuel consumption and particle emissions of a Euro 5 passenger car is evaluated in this paper. The vehicle was subjected to a series of different driving cycles, including the current (NEDC) and future (WLTC) cycles implemented in the European type approval procedure at cold and hot start condition and particle number was measured with an AVL Particle Counter. In addition, we have utilized two Pegasor Particle Sensor units positioned in different locations along the sampling line to assess the impact of the sampling location on the particle characteristics measured during highly transient events.
The results showed that the particle number emission levels over the WLTC were comparable to the NEDC ones, whereas NOx emissions were more than twofold higher. Both fuel saving technologies can lead to reduced fuel consumption and, subsequently CO2 emissions, in the order of 5%. However, their impact on particle emissions was not straightforward, as the impact of the DPF loading was found much more significant than the effect of these technologies. However, in several occasions, the frequent start and stops of the engine actually led to an increase in particle emissions over the baseline. On the other hand, the reduced engine speed imposed when the gear shift indicator was respected generally led to lower particle emissions. Transient impacts on particle emissions such as those resulted by the fuel saving technologies studied can be much better monitored with raw exhaust sampling than following the type approval sampling procedure. This recommendation tends to be forgotten in regular research works.
CitationAmanatidis, S., Ntziachristos, L., Samaras, Z., Kouridis, C. et al., "Use of a PPS Sensor in Evaluating the Impact of Fuel Efficiency Improvement Technologies on the Particle Emissions of a Euro 5 Diesel Car," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1601, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-1601.
- European Environmental Agency Monitoring CO 2 emissions from new passenger cars in the EU: summary of data for 2012 http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/monitoring-co2-emissions-from-new-cars/at_download/file
- United States Environmental Protection Agency Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 - 20011 (April 2013) http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html
- European Commission Commission Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 Official Journal of the European Union L 140/1 5 6 2009 http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:140:0001:01:EN:PDF
- Bishop , J. , Nedungadi , A. , Ostrowski , G. , Surampudi , B. et al. An Engine Start/Stop System for Improved Fuel Economy SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1777 2007 10.4271/2007-01-1777
- Mueller , N. , Strauss , S. , Tumback , S. , Goh , G. et al. Next Generation Engine Start/Stop Systems: “Free-Wheeling” SAE Int. J. Engines 4 1 874 887 2011 10.4271/2011-01-0712
- Vagg , C. , Brace , C. , Hari , D. , Akehurst , S. et al. A Driver Advisory Tool to Reduce Fuel Consumption SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-2087 2013 10.4271/2012-01-2087
- Ntziachristos , L. , Fragkiadoulakis , P. , Samaras , Z. , Janka , K. et al. Exhaust Particle Sensor for OBD Application SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0626 2011 10.4271/2011-01-0626
- Ntziachristos , L. , Amanatidis , S. , Samaras , Z. , Janka , K. et al. Application of the Pegasor Particle Sensor for the Measurement of Mass and Particle Number Emissions SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 6 2 521 531 2013 10.4271/2013-01-1561
- Amanatidis , S. , Ntziachristos , L. , Samaras , Z. , Janka , K. et al. Applicability of the Pegasor Particle Sensor to Measure Particle Number, Mass and PM Emissions SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0167 2013 10.4271/2013-24-0167
- Ntziachristos , L. , Amanatidis , S. , Samaras , Z. , Giechaskiel , B. et al. Use of a Catalytic Stripper as an Alternative to the Original PMP Measurement Protocol SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 6 2 532 541 2013 10.4271/2013-01-1563
- Khalek , I. Sampling System for Solid and Volatile Exhaust Particle Size, Number, and Mass Emissions SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0307 2007 10.4271/2007-01-0307
- Amanatidis , S. , Ntziachristos , L. , Giechaskiel , B. , Katsaounis , D. et al. Evaluation of an Oxidation Catalyst (“Catalytic Stripper”) in Eliminating Volatile Material from Combustion Aerosol J. Aerosol Sci. 57 144 155 2013 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2012.12.001
- Maricq , M. Monitoring Motor Vehicle PM Emissions: An Evaluation of Three Portable Low-Cost Aerosol Instruments Aerosol Science and Technology 47 5 564 573 2013 10.1080/02786826.2013.773394
- Ntziachristos , L. , Amanatidis , S. , Rostedt , A. , Janka , K. et al. Optimization of the Pegasor Particle Sensor for Automotive Exhaust Measurements 23rd CRC Real World Emissions Workshop San Diego, USA April 7 10 2013
- Wang , J. , Storey , J. , Domingo , N. , Huff , S. et al. Studies of Diesel Engine Particle Emissions During Transient Operations Using an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer Aerosol Science and Technology 40 11 1002 1015 2007 10.1080/02786820600919408
- Maricq , M. , Podsiadlik , D. , Brehob , D. , and Haghgooie , M. Particulate Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1530 1999 10.4271/1999-01-1530
- Mamakos , A. , Martini , G. Particle Number Emissions During Regeneration of DPF-equipped Light Duty Diesel Vehicles - A Literature Survey European Commission EUR 24853 EN 2011 10.2788/31651
- Giechaskiel , B. , Munoz-Bueno , R. , Rubino , L. , Manfredi , U. et al. Particle Measurement Programme (PMP):Particle Size and Number Emissions Before, During and After Regeneration Events of a Euro 4 DPF Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1944 2007 10.4271/2007-01-1944
- Mathis , U. , Mohr , M. , and Forss , A. Comprehensive Particle Characterization of Modern Gasoline and Diesel Passenger Cars at Low Ambient Temperatures Atmospheric Environment 39 107 117 2005 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.09.029
- Dwyer , H. , Ayala , A. , Zhang , S. , Collins , J. et al. Emissions from a Diesel Car During Regeneration of an Active Diesel Particulate Filter J. Aerosol Sci. 41 541 552 2010 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2010.04.00
- Ntziachristos , L. and Samaras , Z. Sampling Conditions Effects on Real-Time Particle Measurements from a Light Duty Vehicle SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2049 2000 10.4271/2000-01-2049
- Giechaskiel , B. , Maricq , M. , Ntziachristos , L. , Dardiotis , C. et al. Review of Motor Vehicle Particulate Emissions Sampling and Measurement: From Smoke and Filter Mass to Particle Number J. Aerosol Sci. 47 68 86 2014 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2013.09.003