This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A RANS CFD 3D Methodology for the Evaluation of the Effects of Cycle By Cycle Variation on Knock Tendency of a High Performance Spark Ignition Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 01, 2014 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Knocking combustions heavily limits the efficiency of Spark Ignition engines. The compression ratio is limited in the design stage of the engine development, letting to Spark Advance control the task of reducing the odds of abnormal combustions.
A detailed analysis of knocking events can help improving engine performance and diagnosis strategies. An effective way is to use advanced 3D CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation for the analysis and prediction of combustion performance. Standard 3D CFD approach is based on RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) equations and allows the analysis of the mean engine cycle. However knocking phenomenon is not deterministic and it is heavily affected by the cycle to cycle variation of engine combustions. A methodology for the evaluation of the effects of CCV (Cycle by Cycle Variability) on knocking combustions is here presented, based on both the use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and experimental information. The focus of the numerical methodology is the statistical evaluation of the local air-to-fuel and turbulence distribution at the spark plugs and their correlation with the variability of the initial stages of combustion.
CFD simulations have been used to reproduce knock effect on the in-cylinder pressure trace. The pressure signal holds information about waves propagation and heat losses: it is crucial to relate local pressure oscillations to knock severity. For this purpose, a CFD model has been implemented, able to predict the combustion evolution with respect to Spark Advance, from non-knocking up to heavy knocking conditions. The CFD model validation phase is essential for a correct representation of both regular and knocking combustions: the operation has been carried out by means of an accurate statistical analysis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data. The methodology is applied to a high performance engine, equipped with both mono-spark and twin-spark configurations, and proved to be an useful tool for the evaluation of knock tendency of the two different settings in Maximun Brake Torque condition.
CitationForte, C., Corti, E., Bianchi, G., Falfari, S. et al., "A RANS CFD 3D Methodology for the Evaluation of the Effects of Cycle By Cycle Variation on Knock Tendency of a High Performance Spark Ignition Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1223, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-1223.
- Kim , K. and Ghandhi , J. A Simple Model of Cyclic Variation SAE Technical Paper 2012-32-0003 2012 10.4271/2012-32-0003
- Dai , W. , Trigui , N. , and Lu , Y. Modeling of Cyclic Variations in Spark-Ignition Engines SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2036 2000 10.4271/2000-01-2036
- Vitek , O. , Macek , J. , Poetsch , C. , and Tatschl , R. Modeling Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in 0-D/1-D Simulation by Means of Combustion Model Parameter Perturbations based on Statistics of Cycle-Resolved Data SAE Int. J. Engines 6 2 1075 1098 2013 10.4271/2013-01-1314
- Tatschl , R. , Bogensperger , M. , Pavlovic , Z. , Priesching , P. et al. LES Simulation of Flame Propagation in a Direct- Injection SI-Engine to Identify the Causes of Cycle-to- Cycle Combustion Variations SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1084 2013 10.4271/2013-01-1084
- Vitek , O. , Macek , J. , Tatschl , R. , Pavlovic , Z. et al. LES Simulation of Direct Injection SI-Engine In-Cylinder Flow SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0138 2012 10.4271/2012-01-0138
- Fontanesi , S. , Paltrinieri , S. , Tiberi , A. , and D'Adamo , A. LES Multi-cycle Analysis of a High Performance GDI Engine SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1080 2013 10.4271/2013-01-1080
- Vermorel , O. , Richard , S. , Colin , O. , Angelberger , C. , Benkenida , A. , and Veynante , D. 2009 Towards the understanding of cyclic variability in a spark ignited engine using multi-cycle les Combustion and Flame 156 8 1525 1541
- Forte , C. , Bianchi , G. M. , Corti , E. , and Fantoni , S. 2008 Combined experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of air-to-fuel ratio on cyclic variation of high performance engines ASME(ICEF 2008-1668)
- Ikeda , Y. , Nishiyama , A. , Kim , S. , Takeuchi , A. , Wilnklhofer , E. , and Baritaud , T. 2006 Cyclic variation of local a/f (lambda) and mixture quality in si engine using local cheminuminescence 7th International Symposium in Internal Combustion Diagnostics
- Tinaut , F. , Giménez , B. , Horrillo , A. , and Cabaco , G. Use of Multizone Combustion Models to Analyze and Predict the Effect of Cyclic Variations on SI Engines SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0961 2000 10.4271/2000-01-0961
- Nates , R. Thermal Stresses Induced by Knocking Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1238 2000 10.4271/2000-01-1238
- Chakravarthy , K. , Wagner , R. , and Daw , S. On the Use of Thermodynamic Modeling for Predicting Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in a SI Engine under Lean Conditions SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3802 2005 10.4271/2005-01-3802
- Mehrani , P. and Watson , H. Modeling the Effects of Mixture Composition on Cyclic Variability SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0672 2007 10.4271/2007-01-0672
- Czarnigowski , J. A Simple Method of Analysis and Modeling of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Engine Work - the Example of Indicated Pressure SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2079 2007 10.4271/2007-01-2079
- Choi , S. , Lim , J. , Ki , M. , Min , K. et al. Analysis of Cyclic Variation and the Effect of Fuel Stratification on Combustion Stabilityin a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) CAI Engine SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0670 2009 10.4271/2009-01-0670
- Bozza , F. , Gimelli , A. , Siano , D. , Torella , E. et al. A Quasi-Dimensional Three-Zone Model for Performance and Combustion Noise Evaluation of a Twin-Spark High-EGR Engine SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0619 2004 10.4271/2004-01-0619
- Cavina , N. , Corti , E. , Poggio , L. , and Zecchetti , D. Development of a Multi-Spark Ignition System for Reducing Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of a High Performance GDI Engine SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1419 2011 10.4271/2011-01-1419
- Corti , E. and Forte , C. Statistical Analysis of Indicating Parameters for Knock Detection Purposes SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0237 2009 10.4271/2009-01-0237
- Corti , E. , and Forte , C. 2010 A statistical approach to spark advance mapping Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 132 8 1996 6
- Corti , E. , and Forte , C. 2011 Spark advance real-time optimization based on combustion analysis Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 133 9 1996 2
- Forte , C. , Bianchi , G. , and Corti , E. Multicycle Simulation of the Mixture Formation Process of a PFI Gasoline Engine SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2463 2012 10.4271/2011-01-2463
- Forte , C. , Corti , E. , and Bianchi , G. M. 2010 Combined experimental and numerical analysis of knock in spark ignition engines ASME ICEF09-14102 473 488
- Lafossas , F. , Castagne , M. , Dumas , J. , and Henriot , S. Development and Validation of a Knock Model in Spark Ignition Engines Using a CFD code SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2701 2002 10.4271/2002-01-2701
- Forte , C. , Bianchi , G. M. , and Corti , E. 2010 Validation of a lagrangian ignition model in si engine simulations ASME ICEF2010-35159 859 871
- Falfari , S. and Bianchi , G. Development of an Ignition Model for S.I. Engines Simulation SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0148 2007 10.4271/2007-01-0148
- Corti , E. and Forte , C. Combination of In-Cylinder Pressure Signal Analysis and CFD Simulation for Knock Detection Purposes SAE Int. J. Engines 2 2 368 380 2009 10.4271/2009-24-0019