This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Neutron Tomography of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 01, 2014 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOx emissions standards. Exhaust gas laden with particulate matter flows through the EGR cooler which causes deposits to form through thermophoresis and condensation. The low thermal conductivity of the resulting deposit reduces the effectiveness of the EGR system. In order to better understand this phenomenon, industry-provided coolers were characterized using neutron tomography. Neutrons are strongly attenuated by hydrogen but only weakly by metals which allows for non-destructive imaging of the deposit through the metal heat exchanger. Multiple 2-D projections of cooler sections were acquired by rotating the sample around the axis of symmetry with the spatial resolution of each image equal to ∼70 μm. A 3-D tomographic set was then reconstructed, from which slices through the cooler sections were extracted across different planes. High concentrations of hydrocarbon is necessary for imaging deposits and only those coolers which exhibited large organic fractions or hydrated sulfate phases were successfully characterized. Cooler plugging and the effect of internal cooler geometry on the deposit thickness and spallation were characterized. Results are discussed in relation to future performance gains expected to occur with new spallation neutron sources that will provide energy selectivity and higher spatial resolutions.
CitationLance, M., Bilheux, H., Bilheux, J., Voisin, S. et al., "Neutron Tomography of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-0628, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-0628.
- Nagendra , K. , Tafti , D.K. , and Viswanathan , A.K. Modeling of soot deposition in wavy-fin exhaust gas recirculator coolers International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 7-8 1671 1681 2011 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.10.033
- Lance , M. , Sluder , S. , Lewis , S. , and Storey , J. Characterization of Field-Aged EGR Cooler Deposits SAE Int. J. Engines 3 2 126 136 2010 10.4271/2010-01-2091
- Sluder , C. , Storey , J. , Lance , M. , and Barone , T. Removal of EGR Cooler Deposit Material by Flow-Induced Shear SAE Int. J. Engines 6 2 999 1008 2013 10.4271/2013-01-1292
- Strzelec , A. , Bilheux , H. , Finney , C. , Daw , C. et al. Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-2735 2009 10.4271/2009-01-2735
- Toops , T.J. , Bilheux , H.Z. , Voisin , S. , Gregor , J. et al. Neutron tomography of particulate filters: a non-destructive investigation tool for applied and industrial research Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 729 581 588 2013 10.1016/j.nima.2013.03.033
- Harvel , G. , Chang , J. , Tung , A. , Fanson , P. et al. Three-Dimension Deposited Soot Distribution Measurement in Silicon Carbide Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0599 2011 10.4271/2011-01-0599
- Harvel , G. , Chang , J. , Ewing , D. , Fanson , P. et al. Measurement of Multi-Dimension Soot Distribution in Diesel Particulate Filters by a Dynamic Neutron Radiography SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1263 2009 10.4271/2009-01-1263
- Manke , I. , Strobl , M. , Kardjilov , N. , Hilger , A. et al. Investigation of soot sediments in particulate filters and engine components Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip. 610 2 622 626 2009 10.1016/j.nima.2009.08.072
- Ismail , B. , Ewing , D. , Cotton , J. , and Chang , J. Characterization of the Soot Deposition Profiles in Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cooling Devices Using a Digital Neutron Radiography Imaging Technique SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1433 2004 10.4271/2004-01-1433
- Ismail , B. , Ewing , D. , Chang , J.-S. , and S. Cotton , J. Development of a non-destructive neutron radiography technique to measure the three-dimensional soot deposition profiles in diesel engine exhaust systems Journal of Aerosol Science 35 10 1275 1288 2004 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2004.04.007
- Ismail , B. , Charles , F. , Ewing , D. , Cotton , J. et al. Mitigation of the Diesel Soot Deposition Effect on the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cooling Devices for Diesel Engines SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0656 2005 10.4271/2005-01-0656
- Volk , P. , Wachtmeister , G. , Hornig , G. , and Niessner , R. Deposition Mechanisms in Exhaust Heat Exchangers MTZ Worldwide Edition 73 58 64 2012
- Lance , M. , Sluder , C. , Wang , H. , and Storey , J. Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1461 2009 10.4271/2009-01-1461
- Lance , M. , Storey , J. , Sluder , C. , Meyer , H. III et al. Microstructural Analysis of Deposits on Heavy-Duty EGR Coolers SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1288 2013 10.4271/2013-01-1288
- Warey , A. , Bika , A.S. , Long , D. , Balestrino , S. et al. Influence of water vapor condensation on exhaust gas recirculation cooler fouling International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 65 807 816 2013 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.06.063
- McKinley , T. Modeling Sulfuric Acid Condensation in Diesel Engine EGR Coolers SAE Technical Paper 970636 1997 10.4271/970636
- Lance , M. , Storey , J. , Lewis , S. , and Sluder , C. Analysis of Lacquer Deposits and Plugging Found in Field-Tested EGR Coolers SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-0629 2014 10.4271/2014-01-0629